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Understanding Acute Kidney Injury: Causes, Risks, and Management

What is AKI

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is known to be the sudden episodic base of kidney failure where the damage is known to happen within some of the few hours and days. This can reduce the overall blood flow to the kidneys. The manifestation of pathophysiology can be given off to the fact that there is somewhat progressive decline in all the kidney functions within people who are having chronic kidney failure. The modulation along with the adaptation takes place in the functional glomerulus where the kidneys are known to become functional and normal functioning is not considered for as long as it is possible. The intratubular flow is known to get increased and this, on the other hand, reduces the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (Goal et al., 2021).

There is acute obstruction in the renal flow where impairments are known to happen and this is also being focused on the fact that certain inflammatory processes are triggered as per that. Obstruction of urinary tract can also happen which can lead to acute kidney injury. In mere precedence to the pathophysiological reasoning, this can be stated that urinary obstruction can also happen due to anuria or intermittent urinary flow which can be present in the form of nocturia or nonoliguric AKI (Gameiro et al., 2020).

Inflammation to the kidneys is known to happen where the highly energetic and metabolically activated nephron segments are known to be present in the outer medullary regions of the kidney and more than that, this helps in triggering the conversion from transient hypoxic conditions along with intrinsic renal failure. The injury to kidney cells can happen which can be lethal or sub lethal. Management Most of the people who are suffering from acute kidney injury are known to remain hospitalised and the treatment options are known to be given until the kidneys get recovered.

Temporary haemodialysis can be done so that kidneys can get recovered. All the medications should be given in accordance to care so that no treatment with relation to hypo-perfusion as well as sepsis can get prevented accordingly. Intravenous (IV) administration of isotonic sodium chloride solutions can also be given off since this would help in maintaining the fluid balance of the blood along with the body (Chen et al., 2019). Other than that, other prevention-related strategies with respect to treatment must be followed which includes the provision of the fact that the people must be directed to eat healthy and the diets must be rich in fat and low salt diets and this can be done for 30 minutes (Makris & Spanou, 2016). Alcohol must get limited and this should be given off with resilience to the fact that all the prescribed medicines must be taken under optimal consideration and time. NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory drugs) and OTC (Over the Counter) medications must not be taken down by the patient as these can hurt the kidneys which, on the other hand, causes Acute Kidney Injury.

Feedback: There are lots of relevant facts in your answer, but poor grammar makes it difficult to assess how much you really understand of the topic. To improve your answer (and your mark) you need to need to aim for greater clarity in your writing. In terms of the content of your answer, it might be helpful to start with a statement of why kidney function is so important (i.e. what DOES the kidney do?). You need to be clear that AKI is an acute problem rather than a chronic one. You would get extra marks if you stated the diagnostic criteria (i.e. the rise in creatinine that occurs, or the fall in urine output - see the lecture slides). Most people writing about AKI group the causes under the heading pre-renal, renal (or intrinsic) and post-renal.

Although you have discussed elements of all these categories, grouping your ideas together using a structure like this would add clarity to your essay. In management you would gain extra marks by explaining why dialysis is used (it's about short-term replacement of kidney functions, e.g. removal of wastes, rather than allowing the kidney to recover), and adding additional points such as maintaining an adequate blood pressure and keeping the person well-hydrated. These are also important points for prevention. Healthy diet and exercise are important for everyone, but are not especially relevant to AKI. What is AKI Diagnosing AKI Causes : Pre-renal,renal(intrisic),post-renal Risk factor Complications associated with AKI Management of AKI If AKI is diagnosed- No reference No intext citations needed

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