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150 Word Essay on Consumer Behavior


Consumer behavior can be defined as the study of an individual or a group of people working in the organization who selects their way and use of services and product (Solomon et al., 2014). The behavior of the consumer is mainly concerned with psychology, behavior and motivation. The behavior of the consumer is analyzed during shopping and researching about a particular brand before purchasing the item (Cantallops, & Salvi, 2014).


The following essay will discuss about a brand that is chosen for this essay and analyze the behavior of the consumer while making a purchase of those brand (Maniatis, 2016). It will further reflect on the overview of ELM and contrast on the strength and weaknesses, which is included in the theory (Ho & Bodoff, 2014). The theory of ELM has different stages which will be illustrated with the help of examples from own viewpoint. Further in the essay the discussion will comprise of sales force social studio analysis with the chosen brand. In the last section of the assignment the essay will comprise of explaining brand related information which affects the behavior of the consumer and the tactics used by the market to manage the behavior of the consumer. The brands that will be discussed in the essay will focus on Nike, Forever 21, Gap, Lee and MAC (J. Kitchen et al., 2014).

Elaboration Likelihood Model

The Elaboration Likelihood Model can be defined as the persuasion, which has a dual process theory, which describes the changes in the attitude. Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo developed this model in the year 1980. This model aims at describing the ways and process, which the stimuli and focus on why they are used and the outcomes on the attitude change. The concept of persuasion is very much included in our daily life. This process in the model arises when the listener, viewer or reader learns something from which he or she has learned something and gathered information. The concept of the idea that is generated by reading the information has a chance of more than 90% that can make the reader persuade. This is the way we learn something and remember with the help of persuasion (Kerr et al., 2014). . With a help of an example of an advertisement which gives a appropriate information about the brand and this offering in the price like discount then the customer gets easily persuaded and opts to make a purchase in the future. The researchers have found out that the Elaboration Likelihood Model works on the persuasion message in changing the attitudes of the consumer or reader. The corporation of the consumer is very much important and the advertising agency in designing the marketing strategy and understanding the attitudes of the people (Valkenburg & Peter, 2013).

Two Routes Of The Model

The model is divided into two routes. The persuasion undergoes the process in two different ways. They are the Central route and Peripheral route. The persuasion technique is effective and both the route has its own guiding technique to create it more effective. Firstly, the discussion is about the Central Route that is the process that is straight at the point and is complete. It requires a thoughtful consideration, which is contained in the advertisement or message. It part of involvement is more with the reader than the market. The reader of the message carefully analyses the advertisement in every possible manner. The participation of the receiver is vital when the message gets the central route, the participation of the message should carry motivation and aptitude to think. On the other hand, the second route of persuasion is Peripheral route, which is considered as weak, and the involvement of the receiver is low. The message is not analyzed in a cognitive manner. The receiver of the message is not sure whether to agree with the advertisement or disagree.  At the end the persuader of the message may not be persuaded and will not take any action further for the message (Petty, 2013).

The strength of the central route can be examined with the fact that the receiver of the message is very straight to the point and is termed as strong. This is because the receiver is dominant to its decision-making ability and carefully analyses the message. The weakness of the same route is analyzed in the area where the receiver of the message is directly affected and ignores the message at the same time.  On the other hand, with the peripheral route examines its strength in the basis of the backing that is supported by the advertising media, public relation and marketing team. Whereas the weakness of this route is that the people may not be in the position to think about the message carefully so he or she will look for better options in future (Filieri & McLeay, 2014).

The behavior of the consumer can be examined based on the study of individual as how the consumer, organization or group select, use, buy and dispose its goods and services to satisfy their wants and needs. It is the action of the consumer that is referred to the market place and underlying the motives for those in action (Chang, Yu & Lu, 2015).

Analysis Of The Model

The Elaboration Likelihood Model can be now analyzed with the examples, which has been chosen for this essay. With the help of the examples of the clothing, line such as Nike, Forever 21, Gap, Lee and with the cosmetic brand that is the leading producer of its product in the United States nation.  The advertising media follow the technique of digital marketing as a medium of advertisement of its brand. The fashion brands include their advertising with the help of using latest industry trend. The Elaboration Likelihood Model is applied in the clothing and cosmetic brands in terms of persuasion can be illustrated with the persuasion technique. The marketer of this clothing brand uses a strong message to display its product in the digital platform. This creates a strong impact on the customers which creates a persuasion in the mind of the customer to make a purchase in the near future. Keeping in mind the quality of the product and its innovative style in advertising creates an interest in the mind of the consumer and influences them to purchase the product at the same time. The showcasing of the new fashion, variety in choice and discounted products will automatically lead the customer to reach in the nearest retail outlet.

Difference Between The Central And Peripheral Route

The differences between each stage of the how Elaboration Likelihood Model is distinguish is based on the purpose of each route and its distinctive feature in information processing. For the first basis of distinction, the central route is considered as a strong message and has the ability to persuade its readers. Whereas on the other hand the peripheral route considers the messages where the consumer has a little interest or builds no interest at all to the subject of the message. On the second basis of difference, the central route builds an attention seeking ability from the readers as it maintains to keep a strong motivational message behind the message that is delivered. There is a less chance where the customer is not persuaded. However, the peripheral route has a lesser ability to proceed with the message. Thus the route which is favored more by the markers is the central route of persuasion. For the products like the clothing brand, which comprises of jeans, t-shirts and other apparel garments, are focused to advertise and market its brand on the control route of persuasion.  In case of the cosmetic brand like MAC, which is leading throughout the world, uses the same strategy of persuasion.

Sales Force Social Studio

Sales force Social Studio can be defined as the term for which the product present under the sales force marketing cloud administers the marketing strategy across the complete social media channels (Wertalik, 2017). This helps the business to tap into new power of social media in its customer service, sales organization and marketing. The sentiments, which the consumer has for the brands chosen for this assignment is based on the sales force social studio. The strategy applied by these brand helps the product to be stable under the sales organization as it is the ultimate aim of the marketers. The advertising of the brand comprises its customer service because it is an integral part of the organization to cater to the requirement of the customer (Boatwright, Linvill & Warren, 2018). The after sale service of the brand is very much important because it helps to build the brand loyalty that results to bring back the old customers and create other potentials customers. The brands like Levis, Nike, Lee and Forever 21 is relied on their customer feedback based on which the changes are made in the areas of  customer service, sales organization and marketing.

The brands that are available online can affect consumer behavior when the online portal provides with useful and illustrated information for the brand or product it is selling. The firtst step that the marketers keeps updated with the website and it aims to prepare a clear description of the product and service. Along with the price, it shows that there are no presence of hidden charges or provides the facility of free delivery. The product description is based on the benefits of the brand and its warranty period that gives an assurance to the customer to make a purchase. Related to any brand or product the company offers to update with the latest information that is made available for the consumer. It provides information about the production, manufacturing details and the composition of the product with which it is manufactured. The label and tag of the product states the date of manufacturing and expiry which helps the customer to make selection of the brand (Wertalik, 2018). The information helps the customer to get persuaded and make a purchase either online or by visiting the nearest retail outlet. The inclusion of some bonus information like attaching emotional feeling through the medium of advertisement or facilitating the scheme of discount also attracts the customer to make a purchase.

The strategies that can be used by the marketer to change the attitude or maintain the behavior of the customer is done by the mean changing the basic motives of the customer. The first strategy that can be discussed is changing the brand need into the need of the consumer by emphasizing on the customer need. Secondly, the event or group can administer the brand or the product. The attitudes of the consumers are related in certain parts, social events and causes. It si possible to alter the attitude of the consumer based on the relationship that the company builds in those occasions (Ebersold, 2016). The last strategy that can be discussed is about resolving conflicting attitude that changes the strategies which caters to the potential conflict or actual between two attitudes. If the consumers see that the negative attitude becomes an attribute, which is not a conflict with the other attitude, then the company takes steps to change the resolving conflict. It is important for the company to change the prospect of the consumer about the competitive brand because the approach emphasize on the attitude that changes consumer’s belief about the attitude towards the competitive brand.


Hence it can be concluded with the discussion on the consumer behavior that they way the markers uses its strategies to change the perception of the people to buy their products. The models of Elaboration Likelihood Model stated the different route of the model which was classified on the basis of the brand chosen in this essay (Tuten, & Solomon, 2017). The two route technique has discussed about its way and approach which was used by the marketers to formularize its brand so that they hold the ability to persuade its potential and current consumers. However it is the consumer attitude and behavior that matter for the marketers to sell its product and services in the market. This is given due importance by the marketers because the customers are the sole assets of the brand  and the marketing techniques should be kept strong in the medium of advertising so that by seeing or reading about the product the consumer gets persuaded (Hodson & Cooper, 2017).


Boatwright, B. C., Linvill, D. L., & Warren, P. L. (2018). Troll factories: The internet research agency and state-sponsored agenda building. Resource Centre on Media Freedom in Europe.

Cantallops, A. S., & Salvi, F. (2014). New consumer behavior: A review of research on eWOM and hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, 41-51.

Chang, Y. T., Yu, H., & Lu, H. P. (2015). Persuasive messages, popularity cohesion, and message diffusion in social media marketing. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 777-782.

Ebersold, J. (2016). Developing a social media strategy for Hilti Singapore (Doctoral dissertation).

Filieri, R., & McLeay, F. (2014). E-WOM and accommodation: An analysis of the factors that influence travelers’ adoption of information from online reviews. Journal of Travel Research, 53(1), 44-57.

Ho, S. Y., & Bodoff, D. (2014). The effects of Web personalization on user attitude and behavior: An integration of the elaboration likelihood model and consumer search theory. MIS quarterly, 38(2).

Hodson, N., & Cooper, M. (2017). Twitter and assisted dying: using social media analysis software to evaluate the conversation around assisted dying in terms of guidelines on responsible reporting of suicide. International Journal of Communication and Health, 2017(12).

  1. Kitchen, P., Kerr, G., E. Schultz, D., McColl, R., & Pals, H. (2014). The elaboration likelihood model: review, critique and research agenda. European Journal of Marketing, 48(11/12), 2033-2050.

Kerr, G., Schultz, D. E., Kitchen, P. J., Mulhern, F. J., & Beede, P. (2015). Does traditional advertising theory apply to the digital world?: a replication analysis questions the relevance of the elaboration likelihood model. Journal of Advertising Research, 55(4), 390-400.

Maniatis, P. (2016). Investigating factors influencing consumer decision-making while choosing green products. Journal of Cleaner Production, 132, 215-228.

Petty, R. E. (2013). Two routes to persuasion: State of the art. International perspectives on psychological science, 2, 229-247.

Solomon, M. R., Dahl, D. W., White, K., Zaichkowsky, J. L., & Polegato, R. (2014). Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being (Vol. 10). Toronto, Canada: Pearson.

Tuten, T. L., & Solomon, M. R. (2017). Social media marketing. Sage.

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2013). The differential susceptibility to media effects model. Journal of Communication, 63(2), 221-243.

Wertalik, D. (2017). Social media and building a connected college. Cogent Business & Management, 4(1), 1320836.

Wertalik, D. (2018). Social Media and Building a Connected College| 2017.

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Jack Williams

I am Jack Williams, a Biochemist by profession. However, I developed a flair for writing while working on my Bio dissertations at university. So, I decided to take his passion to another level by stepping into the field of English essay writing. Ever since I have not only been learning the essentials of English writing but also been sharing my learning with students. My blog posts are intended to help not only students learn the technicalities of essay writing but also enable them to face related changes head-on. When I am not researching in my lab or sharing my valuable learning, you can find me playing soccer with my buddies or painting something that touched my heart and inspired me. 

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