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The ASA (American Sociological Association) citation style is a common referencing format in humanities. Primarily used by sociology and social science scholars & researchers, it is different from the more popular formats like APA and Harvard. ASA citations have quirks and nuances that can become problematic for those unfamiliar.
If you are working with the ASA format and need some guidance, then this guide can help you. It covers all aspects of the ASA reference and in-text citations with precise detail.
Let us get started right away.
ASA format citations are brought to you by the American Sociological Association. The ASA is a non-profit group from the United States of America. Its members are eminent scholars from across the country and the rest of the world. The ASA conducts active research in the field and receives papers & articles from all over. The ASA referencing style acts as a referencing & formatting standard for scholars, enabling ease of communication among peers.
Like its counterparts APA & MLA, the primary purpose of the ASA citations is to make things easier to understand. Proper citations prevent plagiarism, showcase the depth & breadth of the writer’s investigations, and aid in further research.
The ASA reference and citations emphasize clarity and simplicity. The design aspect of the format focuses specifically on voice, tense, and wordiness. Other key aspects are gender-neutral, all-inclusive, and bias-free vocabulary & writing.
A specific referencing style allows clearer information exchange. Referencing and formatting styles set communication standards that make interaction and research much easier. Apart from ease of communication, citation styles counter plagiarism, help writers acknowledge the contribution of others, improve credibility & weight, and aid in further research.
The ASA paper formatting revolves around clarity, transparency, and swift reading. That is why the rules are so easy to follow. Below is a quick breakdown of the rules.
Mention the title in full. Add an asterisk next, and then mention your name. After your name, mention the name of your institution, the total word count, and then a footnote. You can add the address of your institution, credits, and other relevant info in the footnotes.
There are specific rules for headers and sub-headers in ASA. As headers and sub-headers help in clarity and structuring, it is vital to add them. And, if you are following ASA rules, keep the points below in mind.
If your teacher asks you to add an abstract page, then do so on a separate page. Add it right after the title page. The paper’s title must appear on the page’s top. The length of the abstract should be not more than 200 words.
You can add both footnotes and endnotes in ASA. Use them for citing sources, providing supplementary information, pointing to works not included in the reference list, etc.
Endnotes are much more common than footnotes. However, the ASA format warns you against using them too much. Use either of the two, and do not mix them up.
The title page and tables must have footnotes. Use endnotes everywhere else.
You will have to number the footnotes/endnotes. Use Arabic numerals and add them as superscripts.
Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page. As for endnotes, reserve a page for them at the end, right after the reference list. Arrange all endnotes numerically and add double spaces between every word. Add ‘Notes’ or ‘Endnotes’ at the top of the page.
You will have to number your pages. Do so using Arabic numerals. Start numbering right from the title page until the reference list page.
You will also have to number any table and figure that you add. Use Arabic numerals here as well. All illustrations and tables should have their page and their title. This makes it easy for readers to grasp their purpose.
Table headings should be full in every row and column. Spell out all words and avoid abbreviations of any sort.
That wraps our look at the general rules for ASA formatting. Now, let’s dive straight into ASA citations & referencing pages.
Before we dig in, know that citations in ASA follow the author and publication date system. As for the referencing list, there are particular guidelines to follow. The referencing page comes at the end, after the main content.
Below are the specifics rule to keep in mind.
Things will become easier to understand with examples. Read on for a list of fictional reference list entries.
As you do research with various sources, take note of the following details à
Take note of all available data.
Let’s look at sample reference entries for the most common sources.
Single Author à Bergen, Alan. 2008. The Depth of Wallow Vulture: The High Dart of Woes, Anchovies, Shovels, Spinsters, and Boys. Boulder, CO: Discipline Publishers
Write ‘eds.’ After the name of the editor, if present. Add ‘Vol.’ in front of volume numbers. Mention ‘Translated by’ if the work is translated from a source. For compilations, write ‘comp.’
Two or More Authorsà, Corbin, Baron, and Hansel Gauss. Basics of Quantity Research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Rage Publishers
No Authorà List sources alphabetically using the first word of the source title.
Miriam-Mobster’s College Dictionary. 2005. 11th ed. Miami, FL: Mobster Publication
Online Edition à Rules remain the same as that of printed sources. Just remember to add the URL in parentheses at the end. Also, mention the DOI number, where available.
Chaptersà Hausen, Ron B. 1974.” The Course of Life.” Pp. 475-541 in Raging and Community. Vol. 3, A Community of Rage Clarification, edited by W.W. Werner, J. Jackson, and B. Rourke. New York: Whistle Mage
When crafting entries for this kind of source, follow the rules below:
Garc, Alm M. 1998. “An Intellectual in the 21st Century.” Journal of American History 18(1):109.
Kun, Exar H. and Rob I. Men. 1984. “Making It at the Top: Labor Market.” American Boral Sign 27(3):301-324.
Alle, Nen, Sona Havez, Ara Des, and Ser Janders. 2006. “Americans’ Attitudes 1936-2002.” Journal of Social Warfare 33(2):5-23.
“A New Law through Florida, Spanish Becomes Vital in Public Schools” 2005. National Review 57(22):12-13.
Sweet, Larry, Shaw D. Bush, and Ray Pat. 2009. “Does School Help?” Oology 47(1):47-91. doi:10.1111/j.1745- 9125.2009.00139.x.
Add DOI if available. If there is no DOI for online sources, add the URL and retrieval date.
The FIRST LINE OF ALL ENTRIES must have HANGED INDENT OF FIVE SPACES.
Also, note that chapter/article names are within quotations.
Queen, Donna I. 1985. “Raw and Ripe Fruit Dissection in Chicago.” PhD Dissertation, Department of Botany, University of Williamson.
Follow the above rules and formats for all online sources. Just omit page numbers and add the URL& the access date.
Zambu, Lelle. 2008. “The Crisis.” The Lelle Zambu Blog, February 11, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2010 (http://www.blogspotter.com/zambu).
Again, follow the same rules above. Just remember to add the URL in brackets and the retrieval date.
Centre for Immoral Studies. N.d. “About the Center for Immoral Studies.” Retrieved October 25, 2010 (http://www.cis.org/aboutcis.html).
Gooden, Owen. 2003. “How Parents Help Children.” Atlantic Monthly, May 2004, pp. 17-36
Gold, Mary. 2007. “Bulbs Glow in Roots.” Washington Post, May 14, p. A6.
Jelly, Aina. 2007. “Pounds for Collars” Newsweek, September 3, pp. 39, 42. (Retrieved on April 4, 2011)
Harris, Guvner. 2008. “More teens getting pregnant.” New York Times, December 6, pp. 62. Retrieved March 12, 2011 (http://proquest.com)
There are no standard rules for public and government documents. Just provide as much information as possible.
General Defense Office. 1989. Self-defence learning in schools. GDD-89-63. Washington, DC: General Defense Office
U.S. Bureau of Space Warfare. 2090. Nature of Warfare. Vol. 4. Washington, DC: U.S. Constitution, Article 5006, Section 6005
BBC News Online. 2051. “U.K. Abolishes the Crown.” YouTube Web site. Retrieved March 9, 2051 (https:// www.youtube.com)
Always remember that if the source is electronic, DOI or URL is essential; if the source is found in print format, then DOI and URL are not vital.
Those were the rules and tips for listing some major sources in the reference list. Now, it’s time to take a look at the in-text citations.
ASA in-text citation rules are nothing too complex. As already stated, in-text citations appear in parentheses. They contain the name of the author, the year of publication, and often, the page numbers. If the author’s name is used in the narrative, only the year and page number/s appear in parentheses.
Here’s a quick look at the guidelines for in-text citations à
(Jackson and Will 1999:44)
(Jackson, Will and Twose 1998:55)
(Jackson et al. 2002)
Arrange them alphabetically by author surname or by year.
(Burton 1991; Camden 1995; Hart and Melvin 2001)
If you use the author and year in the quote, write only (p. xx) in the citation parentheses.
And those were key rules to follow when crafting in-text citations in the ASA style.
And, with that, we wrap up this guide to the American Sociological Association referencing and formatting rules. Hope it was an informative and in-depth guide for everyone. Use this guide for quick reference, and if you think you need some expert help, connect with MyAssignmenthelp.com urgently.
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