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A-Z guide about the usage and features of AMA citation with examples

UserElla Thompson time24 July,2019

Did you know that 11 out of 50 cases of plagiarism are due to lack of proper citation and errors in referencing list? However well you write your paper, you will not be able to make a mark with your findings unless you can prove that your theory is original and authentic. Most of the times, the reason why students make mistakes while writing a referencing list is that they are not thorough with the guidelines of the referencing style.

AMA Citation Guideline

To solve you from a similar plight, we have come up with an AMA citation guideline so that you are aware of the nitty-gritty of it. So here is everything that you need to know about the AMA format paper of references and citation.

What is the AMA citation format?

Created by the American Medical Association, AMA referencing was designed specifically for use in their publications. Today, it is mostly used for documentation, acknowledgement and linking the readers to more information. The AMA citation style allows a person or a researcher to show how another author’s work has been able to contribute to a finding within their area of work.
The two major parts of AMA style of citation are references and citations. The citations should be inserted throughout the text, and the full reference should be stated in the AMA bibliography right at the end of the research paper. The AMA references and citations should be linked by a number, which is defined by order of appearance within the text starting with 1. Each reference should be separated into groups by a period. And within each group, you can use commas, semi-colons, or colons to distinguish between the author’s name, the title of the book or journal.

How to cite the names of the Authors?

  • Use the authors’ surname first and then follow it with their initials without any periods.
  • If there are more than six authors, then you need to list the first three names and then mention “et al.”
  • In case the name of the author has a Roman numeral or the prefix of Jr. or Sr., it comes after the initials of the author’s name. (For example, Henry Ford III becomes Ford Henry III)
  • Original spelling and capitalization of surnames with prefixes like von, de, La should be retained.  

How to cite the Titles of the publication?

  • Retain the spelling, style, numbers and abbreviations of the original title.
  • Retain the capitalizations (For example, Play It As It Lays should be put with the Capitalizations as it is)
  • For numbers at the beginning of the title, spell out the digits except for cases of specific years. (For example, 1984 by George Orwell does not need to be spelt out).

How to number under AMA citation format?

For two or more references cited in one reference group, do the following:  

  • Use hyphens to join the first and last numbers in the series  
  • Use commas to separate parts of a multiple-citation
  • In case of a multiple citation that involves many references, you can use an asterisk in the text and provide a citation in a footnote.
  • Place superscript numerals inside colons and semicolons but outside periods and commas.
  • Cite page numbers within superscript reference.

How to cite in AMA format?

To help you understand how to use AMA format in your bibliography, we have enlisted all the various types of publication with illustrations. Study these AMA citation examples to learn how to do AMA citation for your medical research paper.

Citation TypeFormatExample
Journal article (print)Author(s). Title. Journal. Year; Volume(Issue): Page number(s)Kramer M, Philips R, Roderick G, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator for paroxysmal Dystonic Choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004; 61(7):625-629.
Journal article (online) With URL  With DOI    Published ahead of printAuthor(s). Title. Journal. Year; Volume (Issue): Page number(s). URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.  Author(s). Title. Journal. Year; Volume (Issue): Page number(s). DOI.  Author(s). Title [published online ahead of print date]. Journal. Year; Volume (Issue): Page number(s). DOIDustin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from Pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004; 158(2):106-107. http://archpedi.amaassn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 1, 2004.  Smithson L, Samson P. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Rev. 2012;(2):AC00354. DOI:10.1002/14651858.AC1001054.  Van der Holmes L, Pattinson K, Hussain MF, et al. Identification of a new human virus [published ahead of print May 21, 2010]. Nat Med. doi:10.1038.nm1024
Book chapter (print)Chapter author(s). Chapter title. In: Book author(s) or editor(s). Book title. Volume number and title. Edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year: Page number(s)Solensky R. Chemical allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockey P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.
Book chapter (online)Chapter author(s). Chapter title. In: Book author(s) or editor(s). Book title. Volume number and title. Edition number (do not indicate 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher; Year: Page number(s). URL. Accessed date.Resnik NM. Geriatric medicine. In: Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Isselbacher KJ, et al, eds. Harrison’s Online. Based on: Braunwald E, Hauser SL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001. http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources.documentation/harri soninfo.html. Accessed December 6, 2005.
Book (print)Book author(s) or editor(s). Book title. Volume number and title. Edition number (do not indicate 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.Watkinson N, Yunginger J, Busse W, Bochner B, Holgate S, Middleton E, eds. Middleton’s Allergy: Principles and Practice. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 2003.
Book (online)Book author(s) or editor(s). Book title. Volume number and title. Edition number (do not indicate 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. URL. Accessed date.Faulkner JR, Foley KM, Smith TJ, Gelband H, eds. Describing Death in America: What We Need to Know. Washington, DC: National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine; 2003. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309087252/html/. Accessed December 6, 2005.

Table: AMA Citation Guideline

How to cite a website in AMA citation?

Now that you are thorough with both print and online publications, here is a guide to use AMA citation in text for website sources.

Citation TypeFormatExample
WebsiteAuthor(s). Title of item cited. Name of Website. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.Antimicrobial Resistance. Infectious Diseases Society of America. http://www.idsociety.org/Topic_Antimicrobial_Resistanc e/. Accessed July 21, 2014.

Like cars and other possession, ideas and words are considered a property that cannot be used without the creator’s permission. If used within the needed permit, it results in plagiarism, which comes with severe consequences. In severe cases, plagiarism could lead to cancelled scholarship or rustication. The only way you can avoid plagiarism is by citing your sources in the bibliography. So go through the rules and illustrations of AMA format of citation and make sure you produce a medical paper that gives due credit to the authors and their contributions.

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