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A Comprehensive Guide to Research Methods, Types & Examples

UserMark time16 August,2021

Research methodologies are an essential part of research paper writing. The research methods help you collect the required facts and figures for your research. And it aids you in analyzing the data. Based on this, you discuss the results and proceed with your research paper.

In this blog, you will get a detailed insight into the methods, the various types and applications, and examples.

What are Research Methods?

Specific strategies for gathering and interpreting data are known as research methods. The development of your research methodology is an important aspect of your study plan. There are two major decisions to be made while planning your tactics. These are data collection and analysis of data.

To know more about the research methods, read the following section.

Research Method

What are the Types of Research Methods?

In this section, we will discuss the types of research methods. 

  • Data Collection

First, we will take a look at the methods of data collection.

  • Primary vs Secondary Data

Any original information that you acquire for the purpose of addressing your research question is referred to as primary data (e.g. through surveys, observations and experiments). You can use this method to have control over sampling and measurement methods.

Information that has already been gathered by other researchers is referred to as secondary data (e.g. in a government census or previous scientific studies). Thus, you have quicker and easier access to data.

  • Qualitative vs Quantitative Data

The sort of information you wish to develop will determine whether you collect qualitative or quantitative data.

Collect qualitative data to answer questions about ideas, experiences, and meanings or examine anything that can't be stated statistically. You can adjust the methods as per convenience as you develop a new understanding.

Collect quantitative data if you wish to build a better mechanistic grasp of a topic or if your research involves hypothesis testing. You can rely on this method to systematically describe a large collection of aspects.

  • Descriptive vs Experimental Data  

You acquire data about your study subject without intervening in descriptive research. Your sample procedure will determine the validity of your study. This method allows you to describe the research subject without you modifying it.

You methodically intervene in a process and measure the outcome in experimental research. Your experimental design will determine the validity of your findings. In this case, you have more control over the confounding variable.

You can change your independent variable, properly measure the dependent variable, and adjust confounding variables in order to conduct an experiment. This method is the greatest choice for answering issues regarding causation and effect if it is both realistic and ethically possible. You should buy research paper writing service to write a perfect research paper.

Now, for research study, we need to analyze the data.

  • Data Analysis Methods

In this regard, there are two types of analysis methods. These are:

  • Qualitative Analysis Methods

To comprehend words, thoughts, and experiences, qualitative analysis is applied. It can be used to interpret data acquired in the following ways:

  • Open-ended survey and interview questions, literature reviews, case studies, and other text-based sources 
  • Non-probability sampling methods 

Qualitative research is a flexible method that relies on the researcher's judgement. So, you have to be careful about your decisions and choices.

  • Quantitative Analysis Methods

The quantitative analysis relies on numbers and statistics to comprehend frequency, averages, and correlations (in descriptive studies). And it also uses cause-and-effect relationships (in the case of experiments).

You can use quantitative analysis to analyze data acquired in one of two ways:

  • During a research project.
  • Using sampling procedures that are based on probability.

The results of the quantitative analysis may be easily standardized and disseminated across academics because the data is collected and evaluated in a statistically accurate manner.

In the next section, we will take a look at some examples. It will help you have a good grasp of the methodologies and where you can use them.

Taking a Look at Some Methods and Methodology Examples

In this section, we will analyze the methodology examples.

If you wish to read more examples, you should pore through university libraries and Google Scholar. Check for dissertations and research papers online. You might even find them at the free samples section of academic writing service providers.

What Are Various Types of Research Approaches?

If you wish to know the various research approaches, you should go through the following section.

  • Experiments

Participants in experimental research may be requested to perform a variety of tests to assess their cognitive abilities. These include word recall, attention, focus, reasoning ability, etc., which are normally administered verbally, on paper, or by computer. The outcomes of several groups are then compared. An intervention, such as a training program or any type of social engagement, could be included in the study.

  • Surveys

Surveys entail gathering data from a large number of people. There are various kinds of surveys. The most basic type (the "one-shot survey") is given to a group of people at a specific point in time. Another form is the "before and after survey," which people complete before and after a major event or experience.

  • Questionnaires

Questionnaires are an effective approach to collect data from a large number of people. Participants can express their opinions or sentiments without fear of a negative reaction from the researcher. Multiple choice questions, attitude scales, closed questions, and open-ended questions are common in questionnaires.

  • Case Studies

Case studies are usually focused on a single case (a person or a small group). Data is collected and analyzed using a variety of methods, the most common of which are observation and interviews. It could entail talking to other people and looking through personal or public records. A certain phenomenon may pique the researchers' interest.

  • Interviews

Interviews are typically conducted face-to-face; however, they can also be conducted over the phone or via Skype. The interviewer can use a formal or casual approach, allowing the interviewee to speak freely about a topic or asking certain pre-determined questions.The researcher may use a check list or a questionnaire to record replies during the interview.

  • The Delphi Method

The Delphi method has been found to be beneficial in determining the variety of viewpoints that exist on a certain subject. Researchers may explore policy or clinical difficulties, and attempt to reach an agreement on contentious matters. The goals can be classified into two categories: those that try to measure diversity and those that aim to reach consensus.

  • Observational Trials

Health issues are studied in large groups of people in natural settings in observational trials. Longitudinal techniques look at a group of people's behavior over a long period of time. The aim of such investigations is usually to see if there is a link between two or more variables. Rather than following a group of people from one point in time to the next, researchers in certain situations employ a retrospective strategy.

  • Participant and Non-participant Observation

Participant observation and non-participant observation are the two basic types of studies that include people being observed. The researcher becomes (or is already) a member of the group being observed in participant observation studies. On the other hand, the researcher is not a part of the study when it comes to non-participant studies.

Hopefully, you understood the types of data collection and analysis methods and research varieties.

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