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Complete Citation Guide for Referencing different Citation Styles

UserMark time27 December,2014

How would you feel when someone else steals your hard work and gain popularity unethically? Apart from feeling betrayal, it is a great academic sin. When you are giving credit to the writer of the original idea, you are reflecting honesty in your paper.

Referencing or citations are done in two methods: In-text citations and Reference list. Academic institutes around the globe are very strict when it comes to citation or referencing. They expect students to meticulously follow the citation styles while referencing the sources of information. Here is a list of few things you are required to cite in a document:

  • Summarizing or paraphrasing 
  • Direct quotations
  • Borrowing information or ideas from other’s work
The A to Z of Referencing

History of Different Citation Styles

Every college and university tutor wants their students to follow the referencing style set by them. Following is the list of some referencing style explained in brief.

You may have a question like ‘what is the need for different citation styles?’ Different citation styles fulfill different academic purposes. Take, for instance; some are applicable for Maths while others are used in different fields.

  • The APA citation style was initially discovered in July of 1822 by the American Psychological Association. The core reason for the formation of this association was the movement they initiated regarding academic disciplines, which included economics, political science, academic disciplines, physiology and biochemistry.

The primary users of MLA (Modern Language Association) citation style are the scholars of language and literature in America. MLA style had been discovered in 1883. The purpose of this citation style can be best understood from ACLS (American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) point of view who commented, “The Modern Language Association is formed for educational, scientific, literary, and social objects and purposes, and more specifically for the promotion of the academic and scientific study of English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, and other so-called modern languages and literatures.”

  • The Chicago Manual of Style is considered as a style guide for American English. The University of Chicago Press had published this citation style. This citation style mainly focuses on American English. You can get The Chicago Manual of Style in both hardcover and softcopy.
  • The formation of Harvard citation style or “Harvard system” can be traced back to 1881. A renowned Zoologist Edward Laurens Mark from Harvard University published a landmark cytological paper on the ‘embryogenesis of the common garden slug, Limax campestris’. Page 194 had an author-year citation along with footnote. This was the start of the Harvard referencing style.

  • The Oxford University has designed the oxford citation style (The standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA)). Its primary purpose is to provide precise citations of legislation, authorities and other legal materials.
  • Vancouver citation style basically has a numerical style of referencing, which was designed by the National Library of Medicines and International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

Confused About where to Use Different Styles of Referencing?

Different subjects follow different citation styles as per academic disciplines. Your professor/ teacher will tell you what citation style you have to follow. If not, here is the list of common citation styles and what academic disciplines they follow.  

  • MLA citation style, which was founded in 1951 by the Modern Language Association, is mostly used in humanities subjects like art, history, literature, etc.
  • The American Psychological Association introduced APA citation style, and thus, it is no surprise that it is mostly used for behavioural sciences like anthropology, social work, psychology, etc.
  • The Chicago style is frequently used for history. However, it is also used by other humanities fields.
  • There is no specific academic discipline for Harvard style. Almost all academic disciplines follow it.
  • The Oxford referencing style is designed for the law field and specially used by law schools.
  • The Vancouver referencing style is followed mostly in the fields of medicine and science.

How to Cite Different Documents?

Each citation style is applied differently in different documents like books, journal article, blogs, magazines, and websites. Considering your confusion regarding different citation styles, we have provided you format of APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, Oxford and Vancouver referencing styles in documents like books, journal articles, blogs, websites and magazines.

Referencing Book Using Different Citation Styles

Few things to Remember

  • In a book with two to three authors, add all the names in the same format.

Example: Kami Garcia, Margaret Stohl, Beautiful Creatures (United States: Little, Brown, 2009) 

  • The titles and affiliations are needed to be removed.
  • Any roman numerical Jr/Sr need to present after the author’s name.

1. Citing a book in APA format

In-text citation:

Format: (Author’s last name, publication year)

Example: (Austen, 1813)

Referencing list:

Format:  AuthorName, Initial. (Year of publication), Title of work. Publisher city, State: Publisher.

Example: Jane Austen (1813), Pride and prejudice. New York, United Kingdom: T.Egerton

2. Citing a book in MLA format

In-text citation:

Format: (Author name publication year)

Example: (Agatha 26)

Referencing list:

Format: Author. Title. Publisher name, Publishing year

Example: Jane Austen. First Impressions. T.Egerton, 1813 

3. Citing a Book in Chicago style

Before you begin using the Chicago Manual of Style, you must know that it has two processes for citations – 1) Notes and Bibliography system, and 2) the author-date system. 

Here are examples of author-date system for both in-text citations and reference list, 

In-text citation:

Format: Author’s last name, Title, page referenced number

Example: Sparks, Message in the bottle, 234-238

Referencing list:

Format: Last name, First name. Title of book. Edition number. Publication location: Publisher name, Publication year

Example: Nicholas Sparks, Message in the Bottle, ed. New York: Warner Books, 1998. 35-44

4. Citing a book in Harvard style

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname, Year published)

Example: (Brown, 2017)

Referencing list:

Format: Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year published)Title. Edition. Publisher. Place of publication.

Example: Brown, P. (2017) Three Little Women. 2ndEdn. Robert Brothers. United States.

5. Citing a book in Oxford style

Unlike other citation styles, Oxford referencing uses footnotes and reference lists. This process may seem confusing to use, but it helps the readers understand the sources. 

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname Year published)

Example: (Brown 1985)

Referencing list: 

Format: Author surname, author Initial. (Year published). Title, pages used. City: Publisher.

Example: Brown, P. (1985). How to Reference a book, p. 65 pages. London: Kingfisher

6. Citing a book in Vancouver Style

In-text citation

Format: Apply the in-text citation after referencing a source or quoting in assignment. Example: (1)

Referencing list:

Format: Author surname Author Initial. Title. City: Publisher; Year published

Example: Sarah P. Human caused Global warming. New York: Wiley; 2013.

Referencing Journal Article in different Citation styles

1.Referencing journal article in APA format

In-text citation:

Format : (Author name, Publication year, page number)

 Example: (Nicholas, 2012, p.203).

Referencing list:

Format: Author name, Initial, (Publication year). Article title. Periodic Title, Volume(Issue),pp-pp. doin: xxxxx or Retrieved from URL

Example: Carried,P. (2002). Climate Change & Global Warming Exposed. The New Science of Cause and Effect, 56(9), 235-245, doi:xxxx/xxxx

2. Referencing journal article in MLA format

Articles are one of the electronic sources which need to be cited by adding an URL. It has a tendency to get disappear so always save copies of the URL as a backup.

In-text citation:

Format: (Author’s last name page number)

Example: (Winchester 27)

Referencing list:

Format: Name of the author or editor. “Name of article” Title of article, Publication month. Year. DOI or an URL.

Example: 

Source: https://www.scribbr.com/mla/journal-citation/

3. Referencing  Journal article in Chicago style

While referencing an online article or journal article in Chicago referencing style, you can follow the below format:

In-text citation:

Format: Author surname, “Article Title” Page #

Example: Hu, Meeting China’s water shortage crisis: current practices and challenges”, 240

Referencing list:

Format: Author first name/Last name. “Article title”, Journal Name volume number (Year published): Page numbers

For example: Yuanan Hu, “Meeting China’s water shortage crisis: current practices and challenges.” Weird Science 16 (2009): 240-244.

4.Referencing journal article in Harvard style

In Text citations:

Format:  (author name)

Example: (James, 2012)

Referencing list:

Format: Last name, First initial. Publication year, “Article Title”, Journal title (italicize), volume of journal, Issue number of journal, Page range of article

Example: Anderson, F.N. 2018. “International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms”. Journal of environmental management, 205, pp.29-39.

5. Referencing journal article in Oxford style

In-text citation:

Format: (author surname Year published)

Example: (Winchester 2007)

Referencing list:

Format: Initial name. Surname. ‘Article title’, Journal Title, volume number, year, page number

Example: 1Fredrick Anderson, ‘Anderson, F. N. (2018). International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms. Journal of environmental management, 205, 1996, 29-3

6. Referencing journal article in Vancouver style

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname publication year)

Example: (Austen 2012)

Referencing list:

Format: Author name. Title of article. Title of Journal. Publication date, volume, page number

Example: Anderson FN. International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms. Journal of environmental management. 2018 Jan 1,205,29-39.

Referencing blogs in different citation styles

1.Citing blogs in APA format

In-text citation:

Format: (Author name, Publication year)

Example:  (Emily, 2002).

Referencing list

Format: Author’s last name, F.M. (Year, Month, Date of post) Author’s first name. “Title of post”. Blog name, page numbers. Retrieved from URL.

Example:

2.Citing blogs in MLA style

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname)

Example: (Silver)

Referencing list: Format: Author’s last name, Author’s first name. “Title of post”. Blog name, Publisher (only if the name is different than the blog site name), date of the blog post published, link to post.

Example: Barrymore, Sam, “The Limits of Growth”, EasyBib, 2 March. 2018, URL

3. Citing blogs in Chicago style

In-text citation:

Format: Author surname, ‘Title’.

Example: Brown, ‘10 Easy ways to write a powerful and addictive introduction’.

Referencing list:

Format: First name, last name, “Title of blog post”, Blog title, Publisher name, Date of post, URL

Example: Brown, Lizzie. “10 Easy ways to write a powerful and addictive introduction” EasyBib, 2 April.2010,

4. Citing blogs in Harvard style

In-text citation:

Format: (Author name, Publication year)

Example:  (David, 2002).

Reference list:

Format: Author, (Year of the published blog), Title of blog, Title of the internet cite, date and month of posted blog, Available: URL, (Accessed:date)

5. Citing a blog in Oxford citation style

While using Oxford HUMSOC citation style, follow these formats for reference list and in-text citations.

In-text citation:

Format: (author surname Year published)

Example: ( Brown 2016)

Referencing list:

Format: Author surname, Author initial. (Year published). Title. Publication title. Retrieved from URL.

Example:

Source: http://www.citethisforme.com/guides/oxford-university-press-humsoc/how-to-cite-a-blog

6. Citing a blog in Vancouver style:

In-text citation:

Format: After you’ve added the quote or paraphrased information, you will need to add a number. (1)

Referencing list:

Format: Author surname, Author initial. (Year of publication) [Internet]. Title of blog. Available at: URL. [Accessed date]

Example: Kumar, P. (2019). http://hbb.me/2auHsUs. [Blog] How To Create An Interesting Writing Essay Blog. Available at: https://hellboundbloggers.com/create-interesting-writing-essay-blog/64562/ [Accessed 16 Oct. 2019].

Citing Website in Different Citation Styles

1.Referencing website in APA citation

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname, Publication year)

Example:  (Brown, 2016)

Referencing list:

Format: Author’s Last name, First Initial (the year the website last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). Retrieved Month Day, Year Site was last viewed (only if the content has any chance of getting changed over time), from URL

Example: Brown,M (2018). How to Cite a book. 29 September, URL

2. Referencing website in MLA citation style

In-text citation:

Fornat: (author name)

Example: (Annie)

Referencing list:

Format: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the article or Individual page” Title of the Website, Name of the Publisher, Date of publication in day month year format, URL.

Example: Sylverstone, Annie. “How to Write a Paper Impressively”Study in Australia, Allen& Unwin, 26 February 2005, URL.

3. Referencing website in Chicago style

In-text citation:

Format: Author name, Title of website page, Page number

Example: Jenny, Adolescent brain, 24

Footnote citation:

Format: n.Author name (s), ‘Title of Page’, Publishing organization or name of website, publication date, URL.

Example: Ashley Stone, ‘Treasure hunt’, Invisible Works, last modified 6th July, 2018, URL.

Referencing list:

Format: Last name, First name. “Title of Web page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website. Publication date/ access date. URL

Example: Smith, Ronald. “The best solution for youth”. EasyBib. August 14, 2017. URL

4. Website citation in Harvard Referencing

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname Year)

Example: (William 2008)

Referencing list:

Format: Author surname, Initial(s) Year (page created or revised), Title of page, Publisher (if applicable), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Example: Smith, D, 2016, Australian Government, Nov 26 2007, URL.

5. Referencing website in Oxford style

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname, Published year)

Example: (Sparks, 2016)

Referencing list:

Format: n Author, ‘Title of webpage’, Name of website, Publication place, Publisher name, year, page number, URL

Example: Australian Government, ‘Government and Publication’, Australian Government, Australia, TAS, 1986, 2008, p.4, URL

6. Referencing website in Vancouver style

In-text citation:

Format: Add parenthesis after the resource. ( )

Example: You have to write meticulously to get a flawless result (1)

Referencing list:

Format: (Citation number) Author/Organisation. Web page title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication [Date cited]. Available from: URL

Example:

How to cite a magazine Using Different Citation Styles?

We get magazines in both printed and electronic versions. So here, we will show you how to cite magazine in both versions using different citation styles.

1.Citing a magazine in APA format

The Printed magazine

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname, year, page number)

Example: ( Radcliffe, 2015, 67)

Format: Author, Initial (Date published). Title of document. Title of Magaazine,Volume (Issue), page number range.

Example: Harry, A.P (1994, January 27) The outcome of Global warming. Time, 234, 6-17.

The electronic version in magazine

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname, year, page number)

Example: (Marley, 2014, 45)

Referencing list:

Format: Author, Initial (Date published). Title of document. Title of Magaazine,Volume (Issue), page number range. Retrieved from URL of Website’s homepage.

Example: Harry, A.P (1994, January 27) The outcome of Global warming. Time, 234, 6-17.URL

2. Citing magazine in MLA format

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname page number)

Example: (Smith 59)

Referencing list:

Format: Author’s last name, First name, “Title of document”. Magazine title, vol. Volume number, no. Issue number, Publication date, pp. page numbers. Name of database.

Example: Smith, Bella. “Trying to advertise online”. Psychology Today, vol.56, no. 5, Sep-Nov 2014, pp 57-60. CINAHL Complete.

3. Citing magazine in Harvard style

The Printed magazine

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname year publication, page number)

Example: (Butler 2015, p.24)

Reference list:

Format: Author surname, initial(s) Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Title, volume, issue or number, page range (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Example: Butler, K2004, ‘Requirement of male teachers’, Educational Management Administration& leadership, vol.29, no.8, pp. 8-14.

Electronic magazine

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname year publication, page number)

Example: (Geller 2018, p.145)

Referencing list:

Format: Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Title, volume, issue or number, page range (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.

Example:

Source: https://libguides.scu.edu.au/harvard/journals/magazine/newspaper-articles

4. Referencing magazine in Chicago style:

The format for printed magazine in Chicago style:

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname, ‘Title’)

Example: (Sawyer, “The best of Digital Marketing”)

Referencing List:

Format: Last name, First name, “Title of magazine document: Subtitle.” Magazine title, Month Year.

Example: Sawyer, Jacob. “The best of Digital Marketing.” Cientific American, January 1999.

The format of online magazine in Chicago style:

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname, ‘Title’)

Example: (Sawyer, “The best of Digital Marketing”)

Referencing list:

Format: Last name, First name, “Title of magazine document: Subtitle.” Magazine title, Month Year. URL.

Example: Sawyer, Jacob. “The best of Digital Marketing.” Cientific American, January 1999, URL.

5. Referencing a magazine in Oxford citation style

In-text citation:

Format: (Author surname publication year)

Example: (Beaver 2011)

Referencing list:

Format: Author surname, Author Initial. (Year published). Title. Publication title, Issue number:pages used.

Example:

Source: http://www.citethisforme.com/guides/oxford-university-press-humsoc/how-to-cite-a-magazine

6. Referencing a magazine in Vancouver style

The general format to write magazine in Vancouver style would be:

In-text citation:

Format: (number)

Example: (5)

Referencing list:

Format: Author surname author initial. Title. Publication title [Internet]. Year published [cited date accessed]; (Issue number): pages used. Available from URL

Example: Brown, S. Best Recovery for Tumour. New Scientist [Internet]. 2001. [cited 24 september 2006];( vol.34): 124-129. Available from: URL

Precision is a necessity when it comes to citing a source. It is important to seek knowledge on the citation style before applying them on your document. Your assignment must have proper citations if you aim for higher grades. If you are still struggling on that front, you can take help from experts.

NEW UPDATES

FROM AMERICAN PSCHYCOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION – BLOGS

(https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/)

1. “ The “Issue” With Issue Numbers in Journal Articles

By A. Adams October 1, 2019

Refer link

https://apastyle.apa.org/Blog/issue-numbers

2. Book and Book Chapter References: No Location Required

By A. Adams October 8, 2019

Refer link 

https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/publisher-locations-in-book-references

3. The APA Style Blog of the Future

By Chelsea Lee October 1, 2019

Refer link 

https://apastyle.apa.org/Blog/future-blog

4. Shortened URLs in APA Style References

By Timothy McAdoo October 25, 2019

Refer Link

https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/shortened-urls

FROM MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION

MLA Internation Bibliography Tutorial

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