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The APA style consists of rules and conventions for formatting term papers, journal articles, books, etc., in the behavioural and social sciences. This user guide explains how to cite references in APA style, both within the text of a paper and in a reference list, and gives examples of commonly used types of references.
(Morse, 1996) OR Morse (1996) showed that...
(Ringsven & Bond, 1996) OR In their study, Ringsven and Bond (1996)
First citation: (Johnson, Brunn, & Platt, 2002) OR Johnson, Brunn and Platt (2002)
Subsequent citations: (Johnson et al., 2002). Omit the year if the subsequent citation is in the same paragraph.
(Arpin et al., 2001) OR Arpin et al. (2001)
If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the name of the first authors and as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al.
(The Michener Institute, 2002) OR The Michener Institute (2002) reported that...
(T. K. Lutes, personal communication, September 28, 1998) OR
T.K. Lutes (personal communication, September 28, 1998)
"quote" (Miele, 1993, p. 276) OR Miele (1993) found that "quote" (p. 276).
For a more complete description of this referencing style and list of examples, see:
Notes: Bolded headings are for the purposes of this handout only; they would not appear on an actual reference page.
The entries would be listed in alphabetical order on an actual reference page.
Journal article, personal author(s):
Senden, T. J., Moock, K. H., Gerald, J. F., Burch, W. M., Bowitt, R. J., Ling, C. D., et al. (1997). The physical and chemical nature of technigas. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 38(10), 1327-33.
Journal article, organization as author:
The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. (1986). Clinical exercise testing. Safety and performance guidelines. Medical Journal of Australia, 164, 282-4.
Book, personal author(s):
Ringsven, M. K., & Bond, D. (1996). Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. (2nd ed.). Albany (NY): Delmar.
Book or pamphlet, organization as author and publisher:
College of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Ontario. (1995). The registration process. Toronto: Author.
Berkow, R., & Fletcher, A. J. (Ed.). (1992). The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. (16th ed.). Rahway (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories.
Book, editor(s); chapter has own author:
Phillips, S. J., Whisnant, J. (1995). Hypertension and stroke. In J. H. Laragh, & B. Brenner (Eds.), Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management (pp. 465-78). New York: Raven Press.
Saunders. (1997). Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. (28th ed.). Philadelphia.
Lee, G. (1996, June 21). Hospitalizations tied to ozone pollution: Study estimates 50,000 admissions annually. The Washington Post;Sect. A:3 (col. 5).
Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991, Stat. Of Ontario, 1991 Ch.18, as amended by 1993, Ch.37: office consolidation. (Queen's Printer for Ontario 1994).
Electronic journal article:
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.
Document available on a web page:
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: https://ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html
Monograph in electronic format:
Reeves, J. R. T., & Maibach, H. (1995). CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated. (2nd ed.) [CD-ROM]. San Diego: CMEA Multimedia Group
Plagiarism is taking, using, and submitting the thoughts, writings, etc., of another person as one's own. Often students are uncertain when to acknowledge sources, or when to assume that a concept or theory belongs to the domain of general knowledge. If in doubt, include a reference. Types of concepts that require a reference include: discoveries, theories, controversies and opinions. Don't forget to acknowledge the source of illustrations, charts, and tables of data.
There are several reasons for including a reference:
Paraphrases: It is often necessary to reduce a concept or theory into a few sentences. While the words may be your own, the concepts or theories are not; and you must give credit to your sources. The use of paraphrasing, rather than direct quotes, is often preferred because it helps with creating flow in building logical arguments.
Quotations: Direct quotations are to be used very sparingly. The chief drawback is that the text becomes choppy and difficult to read. Using the author's own words in a direct quote is usually justified for only the following reasons: