For a more complete description of this referencing style and list of examples, see:
Notes: Bolded headings are for the purposes of this handout only; they would not appear on an actual reference page.
The entries would be listed in alphabetical order on an actual reference page.
Journal article, personal author(s):
Senden, T. J., Moock, K. H., Gerald, J. F., Burch, W. M., Bowitt, R. J., Ling, C. D., et al. (1997). The physical and chemical nature of technigas. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 38(10), 1327-33.
Journal article, organization as author:
The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. (1986). Clinical exercise testing. Safety and performance guidelines. Medical Journal of Australia, 164, 282-4.
Book, personal author(s):
Ringsven, M. K., & Bond, D. (1996). Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. (2nd ed.). Albany (NY): Delmar.
Book or pamphlet, organization as author and publisher:
College of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Ontario. (1995). The registration process. Toronto: Author.
Berkow, R., & Fletcher, A. J. (Ed.). (1992). The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. (16th ed.). Rahway (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories.
Book, editor(s); chapter has own author:
Phillips, S. J., Whisnant, J. (1995). Hypertension and stroke. In J. H. Laragh, & B. Brenner (Eds.), Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management (pp. 465-78). New York: Raven Press.
Saunders. (1997). Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. (28th ed.). Philadelphia.
Lee, G. (1996, June 21). Hospitalizations tied to ozone pollution: Study estimates 50,000 admissions annually. The Washington Post;Sect. A:3 (col. 5).
Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991, Stat. Of Ontario, 1991 Ch.18, as amended by 1993, Ch.37: office consolidation. (Queen's Printer for Ontario 1994).
Electronic journal article:
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.
Document available on a web page:
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., Nix, D. H. (1993). Technology and education: New wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University, Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: https://ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwine1.html
Monograph in electronic format:
Reeves, J. R. T., & Maibach, H. (1995). CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated. (2nd ed.) [CD-ROM]. San Diego: CMEA Multimedia Group
Avoiding Plagiarism: Why Use References?
Plagiarism is taking, using, and submitting the thoughts, writings, etc., of another person as one's own. Often students are uncertain when to acknowledge sources, or when to assume that a concept or theory belongs to the domain of general knowledge. If in doubt, include a reference. Types of concepts that require a reference include: discoveries, theories, controversies and opinions. Don't forget to acknowledge the source of illustrations, charts, and tables of data.
There are several reasons for including a reference:
- it is ethical to credit others for their contributions to your writing;
- it may be a legal obligation in the case of copyright;
- to protect you in the case of questionable allegations;
- to reflect your prior reading effort;
- to show the sequence of events involved in the resolution of a scientific problem, as part of your argument.
Paraphrases: It is often necessary to reduce a concept or theory into a few sentences. While the words may be your own, the concepts or theories are not; and you must give credit to your sources. The use of paraphrasing, rather than direct quotes, is often preferred because it helps with creating flow in building logical arguments.
Quotations: Direct quotations are to be used very sparingly. The chief drawback is that the text becomes choppy and difficult to read. Using the author's own words in a direct quote is usually justified for only the following reasons:
- credibility, an argument gains credibility by quoting a known authority;
- power, an argument gains power by the skillful weaving-in of knowledge into the text;
- eloquence, an argument gains eloquence by using a direct quote that illuminates the concept.
Checklist for Paper Writing
- Are the problem statement and objectives clearly and concisely written?
- Have the objectives, hypotheses, and research questions been adequately addressed?
- Are the findings, conclusions, and recommendations clearly stated and do they match the objectives, hypotheses, and research questions?
- Where necessary, are significant or potentially controversial statements supported by the literature?
- Are there weaknesses in logic or mistakes in spelling or grammar?
- Are concepts and technical terms adequately explained?
- Could a major point be better presented by a table or graph?
- Is the report/article objective in tone?
- Does the title adequately describe the contents?
- Is the use of headings and subheadings consistent throughout the paper?
- Is each paragraph essential? Does one paragraph flow naturally into the next?
- Are pages, tables, and charts numbered correctly?
- Are all the references necessary?
- Are quotations correct?
- Have you included a table of contents?
- If needed, have you included an abstract or summary of the report?