A 2km pipeline conveys water from reservoir A to reservoir B; the elevation of reservoir A is WXm and the elevation of reservoir B is Y The pipeline is 200mm in diameter and has a roughness of 0.1mm. The pipeline incorporates 5 go0Ã¯Â¿Â½bends (r/D = 0.5),Ã¯Â¿Â½ZÃ¯Â¿Â½gate valves(Ã¯Â¿Â½ closed) and bell mouthed connections toÃ¯Â¿Â½each reservoir. Assuming that the reservoir surface elevations remain constant, estimate the discharge using the Ackers equation. The kinematic viscosity of water may be taken as 1.13x10Ã¯Â¿Â½6m2/s.
Note: Wis largest digit from your student ID, Xis the smallest (non-zero) digit from your student ID, YÃ¯Â¿Â½is the penultimate digit from your student ID and Z is the last digit from your student ID (e.g. for student ID H00032967, WX=Ã¯Â¿Â½92m, Y=Ã¯Â¿Â½6m and Z= 7 gate valves). Please state your student ID.
Without undertaking any additional calculations, explain how the discharge calculated in part (a) would be affected by the following factors:
Pipe roughness of 0.00025m
Pipe diameter of 0.25m
If the fluid transported between the reservoirs was saline water rather than fresh water
For a location near your home town, discuss the suitability of the three commonly employed methods of calculating catchment average rainfall (150 words max).
Clearly state the location you are discussing.
Areas bounded by isohyets drawn on the map of a river catchment are shown in Table Q3a. Determine the catchment average rainfall using the isohyetal method.
A catchment has four rainfall gauge stations, A-D. The area of the corresponding Thiessen polygons and the observed annual rainfall measurements at the stations are given in Table O3b. Calculate the average annual rainfall of the catchment using both the Thiessen method and the arithmetic average method.
The data in Table Q4 were collected for a stream at a gauging station. Using the mean section method, estimate the discharge at the section. Show clearly all the intermediate calculations.
The data shown in Figure 04 relates to downstream tracer concentration measurements during dilution gauging (constant-rate-injection) to determine the discharge in a river. The injection rate wasWÃ¯Â¿Â½litres/min and the concentration of the tracer in the injected solution wasÃ¯Â¿Â½XYÃ¯Â¿Â½gm/litre. Estimate the discharge in the river in cumecs.
The intensity of a storm that lasted forW minutes was found to be XYZ mm/hr. Estimate the return period (years) and probability of occurrence (%) for this storm.
Note: Wis largest digit from your student ID, Xis the smallest (non-zero) digit from your student ID, YÃ¯Â¿Â½is the penultimate digit from your student ID and Z is the last digit from your student ID (e.g. for student ID H00032967, WÃ¯Â¿Â½=Ã¯Â¿Â½9 min, XVZÃ¯Â¿Â½=Ã¯Â¿Â½267 mm/hr). Please state your student ID.
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