The Need for Smart Lighting Systems in Smart Cities
Over the last century, the world’s urban population has risen at an exponential pace. Although just 10% of the population lived in cities in 1990, the number has now risen to 50% and is predicted to grow higher in the coming years. Previous automated street light designs may have overlooked the importance of environmental problems such as C02 emissions in their design, exposing the world to modern humanity threats such as climate change. Recognizing the importance of protecting the environment that we call home, the smart city idea was developed to track, regulate, and handle energy and resources and water use in buildings.
A street light system is an innovative and intelligent lighting control system that is controlled by various IoT communication protocols, computers, and sensors in a centralised or distributed manner. Perception or sensor layer, communication layer, and management layer are the three basic layers of IoT for street lighting architecture. Sensors built into the lighting nodes allow automatic control based on light intensity (via the motion detector) or movement (via the presence sensor) using the motion sensors. These light nodes can communicate and forward sensor data using IoT communication protocols.
•To improve light quality and energy efficiency
•Cost-effective and security perimeter
•To provide satisfactory visual comfort at a less cost
•To send the data to the cloud
•To conduct a literature review
•To control the light intensity based on movement of people or vehicles
•To promote socio-economic activities at night
•To create an effective street lighting that reduce both crime and traffic accidents
•To help environment into energy consumption and analyse the data by cloud
•To implement a simulation for street lighting systems
Although numerous researchers have identified, the benefits of smart lighting system, there are very few researchers and development done to improve it further. Often at the middle of the night or throughout a huge amount of time, the streetlights remain on. Even this energy can be saved. Instead of keeping the lights on throughout, we can even reduce the light intensity while it is not in use. This way, even if a vary less amount of energy was utilized, that too shall be reduced. This light intensity will come back to its full strength when an object, a human being or any car approaches a particular lamppost.
This would help in making the cars aware of the roads or if any person is standing or any animals which is passing by such that they can change their courses or avoid hitting them in the darkness. In this way, numerous mishaps can be prevented from happening which is also inclusive of the fact that the crime is the darkness and other unfortunate happenings like accidents, animal runovers can be prevented as well.
The purpose of the project is to design a light system that when any moving object approaches the lighting source, the sensor will detect the movement and the lighting poles will light up. The research and the project shall develop a system that will be able to serve the afore mention purposes and save lives and energy. As a result, my goal is to create a modern system of lighting that can be functionally into a smart city.
An example of the project is shown in the below image which show the simulation of the idea in the Cisco Packet Tracer. We can see that, when the car or any moving object passes through the area of the IoT headlight, the lighting turns on. Then when the car moves its position and approaches another light source, the first headlight turns off and the one in which the sensor detects the new moving source turns on.
In here you must talk about what requirements are requested to do the project.
And so on with all the steps required to finish the project
Every project has certain risks which cannot be completely overcome, if will be occur in the final stages of the projects. Thus, identifying the project risks are very important. The first and most common risks in the project is the fact that the time required for the project, it may happen that the project may fail to cope up with the milestones and the budget exceeds as well. Thus, it is very important for the project manager who is in charge of this project, to stick to the project timeline strictly.
We are making use of the waterfall methodology which is not quite flexible. Another issue which can come post implementation of the project is the ways in which the technology shall be used in the society. The aim is to provide a feature of security and energy efficiency. If the technology is rather misused by the troublemakers and criminals, then they can be fatal. The intervention of the hackers can be fatal, resulting in the loss of information and malfunctioning of the technology.
Apart from that, another major issue which can be a problem is the cost of implementation of the project. It may happen so that the sustainable development technologies and the smart systems help in reducing the consumption of energy in long run and thereby help in development of cost-effective solutions for the society, the initial implementation cost of the technology can be high, and it can be difficult to put them up in the areas which are lacking such resources. As the technology is only based on smart city, the economic benefits that the government can obtained from this is yet to be determined.
In the modern contemporary world, energy deficiency is a major problem. Several areas get affected by this and even to certain extent the entire humanity. Currently, more than half of the people around the world live in cities and the number would rise in the upcoming years as well. This has also proven a fact that the traditional energy sources and their management systems are incapable of managing such large demands for energy.
Hence, the need for sustenance is clear. A sustainable environment which can fulfil all the necessary energy requirements of the people is something which everyone hopes for. But this will only become possible if there exists a proper way for it involving proper utilization or resources, saving the resources as much as possible, reducing wastage and above all, managing all of these properly to ensure that everything goes as planned. Smart city is a similar concept which we shall be discussing in this project.
It is an attempt to provide all the necessary requirements to a sustained environment and alongside that, ensure proper resource utilization. With the development of new technologies like IoT, artificial intelligence, machine learning and many more, this is a clear possibility in the modern world (Gagliardi, et al., 2018). Smart lighting system is another useful way of managing electricity consumption which is discussed here and is something which can be very helpful when placed hand in hand with smart city concept. Minimizing electricity requirements along with increasing the security of a city could be a revolution. The major components of them are also mentioned here along with the waterfall methodology steps involved in it.