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Structural Design: Calculations, Safety Factors, and Materials

## Calculating Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Simply Supported Steel and Concrete Beams

Students will submit:

·calculations, including workings, to show their achievement of a solution to the assigned questions

·short written statements, explaining:

ostatutory requirements for structural designs

o evaluating how bending moments determine steel beam selection

oanalysing support methods and deflection

oeffective support methods based on ease and speed of construction, economics and safety analysing materials for their capacity and resistance to corrosion and weathering.

LO1 Calculate bending moments and shear forces for simply supported steel and concrete beams.

LO2 Determine deflection for simply supported steel beams

LO3 Calculate the axial load carrying capacity of steel and reinforced concrete columns

LO4 Explore design methods for steel, reinforced concrete beams and columns

(a)A simply supported beam with a span of 14m is subjected to a point load of 150KN at the midpoint. Draw the beam arrangement and determine the reactions at the supports. Calculate and draw the shear force diagram and the bending moment diagram running along the beam.

(b)A beam simply supported has a span of 8m. It carries a 65KN point load at a position 2m from the left support. Draw the beam arrangement and calculate the reactions at both supports. Also determine and draw the shear force and bending momentdiagrams.

(c)A beam simply supported has a length of 25m and carries a uniformly distributed load of 25KN/m. Determine and draw the shear force and bending momentdiagrams.

(d)Draw the shear Force and bending moment diagrams if the beam in (a) if a UDL of 20KN/m is additionally supported by the beam.

(e)Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams if the beam in (c) also carries in addition a point load of 50 KN at 10m from the rightsupport.

Discuss the statutory requirements to ensure safety in structural designs

Explore, explain and produce valid factors of safety for live loads, dead loads and imposed loads using current codes of practice and building regulations, a valid example can be utilised to illustrate this further.

You can use the simply supported beam carrying a UDL provided in Task 1(c) or otherwise to evaluate how maximum bending moments determine steel beam selection using current codes of practice and approved documents in terms of economics and safety. Select a trial section for this beam and explore its safety for bending.

## Determining Deflection for Simply Supported Steel Beams

LO2 : To determine deflection for simply supported steelbeams TASK 2

(A)Determine deflections in simply supported steel beams with point loads and a uniformly distributed load provided in Task 1 (a) to 1 (e).

(B)Explain how deflection in beams affects structural stability.

(C)Identify and describe different methods of supports for structures in general and how are these are applied to both steel and reinforced concrete structures. Analyse different support methods and their effect on deflection in fixed structures.

LO2/LO3: To Assess Support Methods in Construction:

(D)Assess the most effective support method for a given scenario, in terms of ease and speed of construction, economics, safety and environmental factors. You may apply these to examples to be

To calculate the axial load carrying capacity of steel and reinforced concrete columns

(a)A short reinforced concrete column3.75m long of square dimensions 350mm square with steel bar reinforcements has 6 no 25mm bars (area= 2950mm2). Determine the axial load carrying capacity of this column. Confirm firstly that the column is short.

(b)Select an equivalent steel column section that can carry this axial load safely and economically stating all your steps.

(A)Describe the concepts of slenderness ratio and effective length in the design of both steel and reinforced concrete columns separately, and comparing them appropriately.

(B)Determine the exact axial load carrying capacity of the selected steel column section provided above.

(C)Explore and analyse the load carrying capacity, size, weight and corrosion resistance properties of different materials used for beams and columns in fixed structures.