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Assignment on Computational Thermodynamics and Energy Systems

Task Instructions

The assignment is divided into three tasks it is highly recommended that candidates attempt all of these. The assignment is intended to assesses particular methods and approaches employed by candidates [1], with a rationale for Assessment for Learning (AfL). To this end a number of workshops with instruction given in the use of Engineering Equation Solver (EES) will be conducted. The first task, accounts 20% of this assignment, requires candidates to develop a computational model evident in the literature [2, 3] as well as compare of this renewable technology with nuclear power generation. The bulk of the modelling work is to be conducted in Task 2 which accounts for 40% of the assignment, here two specific designs are to be analysed using EES. For the final task, accounting for the remaining 40% of the assignment, candidates should report their findings producing a high quality formal report to demonstrate a mastery in computational thermodynamics.

This formative assignment should produce sufficient evidence for partial fulfillment of the following module learning outcomes:

Apply principles of computational thermodynamics to modern energy systems

Critically evaluate integrated power systems and different sources of energy.
Analyse performance of different energy conversion technologies

Design, integrate and analyse energy systems for specific uses.

On the title page of any submitted work a plagiarism/integrity statement should be in included, e.g.: This assignment has not been submitted before at this or any other educational establishment of learning in the support of a degree of any other award. As per the University module descriptor (MP4709) the module assignment will be worth 60% of the module, with the final on-line examination scheduled for January making up the remaining remaining 40%. The first five video lectures and three worksheets have been specifically designed to support this assignment.

Candidates should submit a single electronic soft-copy, in an non-editable format (e.g. Portable Document Format) through the portal located on the Assignment Tab of the module space. As with all academic work the reference section must be adherence to with our preferred Vancouver (or Harvard) standard [4]. The main sections of the final submission should contain between 1500 and 2500 words, with a penalty of 10% implemented for each 250 words outside this range. Any extra material not directly related to the demonstration/achievement of the module descriptor learning outcomes (e.g. EES commands) should be include in an appendix. It is advised that the final submitted document take the form of a structured report as described in the third task of this brief. The marks for each task are indicated in parenthesis whilst marks for particular parts of a task are indicated in brackets. An exemplar report has also been included in the same part of module space as this brief.

Learning Outcomes

This assignment uses an Assessment for Learning philosophy which means that most of the learning will take place throughout the preparation of this assignment. There are numerous learning opportunities located in each of the contents folders of the on-line module Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), consisting of:
a. On-line video lectures
It is highly recommended that you view the first six (6) of these activities prior to submitting the final essay.
b. Interactive worksheets
c. Learning objectives survey

In preparation for the modelling work to be conducted, it is strongly recommended that candidates view Prof Rangel’s last five lectures from his  excellentcourse Introduction to Thermodynamics at the University of California in Irvine1, in addition to reading Chapter 8 of the text [2].

You will be provided opportunities to join the John Tyndall Institute (JTi) research support drop-in sessions from 1600 each Friday throughout the assessment process, viz.
a. 19 November, 3 and 17 December: on-line through the website by entering the code: [hkr-dcbj-jkr].
b. 26 November and 10 December: face-to-face in Computing and Technology building room CM033.

These sessions will allow you to discuss your assignments with active JTi research active staff members and our thriving research student community.

There is a LyX template available in same assignment folder of the module space as this assignment brief. This template contains all the necessary generic section breaks suggested for the essay, these should be amended to be more specific to your particular research topic.

For support with using library resources, please contact: Mr Bob Frost <[email protected]>. You will find links to lots of useful resources in the My Library tab in the VLE.

It is imperative that all citations used throughout your essay are fully peer reviewed papers or text-books, under no circum-stances should you refer to a websites. Therefore they should all be sourced from the Engineering Library Resources Page. This can be located form the link or through the My Library Tab of the VLE.

If you have not yet made the university aware of any disability, specific learning difficulty, long-term health or mental health condition, please complete a Disclosure Form. The Inclusive Support team will then contact to discuss reasonable adjustments and support relating to any disability. For more information, visit the Inclusive Support site.

To access mental health and wellbeing support, please complete our online referral form.

Assignment Preparation

If you have any other query or require further support you can contact The <i>, The Student Information and Support Centre. Speak with us for advice on accessing all the University services as well as the Library services. Whatever your query, our expert staff will be able to help and support you. For more information , how to contact us and our opening hours visit Student Information and Support Centre.

If you have any valid mitigating circumstances that mean you cannot meet an assessment submission deadline and you wish to request an extension, you will need to apply online prior to the deadline.

To prevent power cuts at peak times, different sources of electricity production must adequately respond to the flexible demands on national grids [5]. That is, electrical supply and demand dictates a balance between power production methods. As a consequence of the Energy Act [6], the UK has began to lead internationally in achieving an electrical power production balance. Currently, traditional fossil fuels and renewable energy account for 34% each of the overall power production in the UK, with 17% being sourced from nuclear and biomass (at 6.3%) accounting for the majority of rest2. This being compared with rest of Europe, which on average produces over 50% of its electricity from fossil fuels and only 15% from renewable energy sources [7]. On the other hand North Africa, with its vast natural and renewable recourses, relies on fossil fuels for a massive 80% (67% Gas, 13% Oil and gas) of its electricity, with only 19% being from

renewable sources. In previous years, especially in Europe, the drive toward so-called carbon-neutral energy production [8], has been to increase the nuclear contribution. However, this source is relatively expensive when compared with more traditional ones [9] resulting in higher strike rates. This probably being the principal reason for the current stall in nuclear new-build programmes across the UK. Moreover, nuclear power has become less popular with governments in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster. Indeed almost overnight, in March 2011 Germany reduced its nuclear power production from 25% to 12%. Furthermore, public opinion there remains broadly opposed to nuclear power with virtually no support in the Bundestag for new-build.

Given this, together with current international impetuous for carbon-neutral power production and the natural depletion of global fossil resources the need for other commercial power-plant designs, perhaps based on renewable technology becomes more provocative [10]. One avenue of exploration is the implementation of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) trough-plants [2]. This assignment is therefore designed to enable candidates to compare and contrast each of the inte- grated power production systems as shown in Figure 1 [2]. Applying the fundamental laws of thermodynamics to this modern system via the consideration of technological merits in terms of energy sustainability and any environment impacts.

Candidates are advised to refer to relevant literature [2] and class/lecture material to focus of the module aims being explored [11], ergo the Learning outcomes identified on the title page of this document. It is the purpose of the finalsubmitted report to demonstrate what l earning has taken place throughout to assessment process and what module learning outcomes have been achieved [12].

Submission Details

1. Use the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) or otherwise to design and analyse the CSP trough-plant a detailed in the references [2], using water as a working fluid. Here a boiler is supplied heat from the solar collector field and plant rejects heat to a temperature reservoir. Fluid is then extracted from a high pressure turbine with a faction of this used to feed the Closed Feed-Water Heater (CFWH). The remaining fluid is passed though a lower temperature turbine which is then subsequently reheated using heat transferred from the collector array, then expanded through a third turbine. A fraction of the exhaust fluid is then directed to an Open Feed-Water Heater (OFWH), with the remainder passing through the final low pressure turbine and then condensed. Saturated fluid leaving the condenser is pumped to the Open Feed-Water Heater (OFWH). The liquid is pulled from the OFWH and pumped up to the CFWH. The flow through the CFWH being controlled so that the extracted fluid leaving is a saturated liquid. With a third pump being exploited to ensure isobaric conditions in a mixing chamber. The pinch points for both of these heat exchangers occur at their warm end.

a. Describe the principle of operation the CSP trough-plant detailed in the reference [2]pp414 and compare and contrast this with the alternative shown in Figure 1[3]. Discuss the capital and operational costs when compared with an equivalent nuclear power plant. {10 marks}

b. Use salient values evident in the literature [2]pp414 for each of the cogent device isentropic efficiencies and heat- exchanger approach temperatures throughout your model. Utilize a standard procedure [2]pp415 to facilitate each of the turbines and another procedure [2]pp41 for each of the pumps in the system, thereby evaluate salient plant operational paramters {20 marks}.

2. Hence critically evaluate the alternative design suggested by Ekremet [3] as shown in Figure 1(b).

(a) Produce the pressure-volume, entropy-temperature and Mollier diagrams for each of cycles. {25 marks}

(b) Find three plant design criteria. {10 marks}

(c) Assuming that all of the radiation is absorbed by the collector pipe. For each of the designs (Figure 1) Determine the total rate of solar energy incident on the solar-trough field for a sensible collector size, obtaining an appropriate solar flux value from literature [2]pp424 {5 marks}

3. Use LyX3, LATEX(or otherwise) to produce a report detailing most important findings from your modelling work. It is suggested that the final submitted document pays attention to the following details.

(a) Introduction and scope {4 marks}
Principle of operation and costing analysis, e.g. Task 1 part(a)
Scope: How are the Learning Outcomes to be demonstrated?

(b) Methods {5 marks}
Definitions, including the standard Rankine cycle.
Justification of assumptions e.g. isentropic efficiency, approach temperatures, etc.
Benchmarking: Turbine and pump procedures.
Complete description of the modelling process used. You may find it useful to use the EES automated

LyX/LATEXreport command to generate any required equations and formulae.

(c) Results {5 marks}
Tabulated state arrays
Pressure-volume, temperature-entropy and Mollier diagram comparisons, together with appropriate de- scription of them.
Plant design criteria values together with suitable explanations.

(d) Discussion {8 marks}
Consideration of the merits or otherwise of the designs detailed in Figure 1.
Suitable cost and/or size comparisons made with similar plants evident in the literature [2, 3] and/or nuclear power equivalents.

(e) Conclusions {4 marks}
Reflection on Learning Outcomes, stating when and were they have been demonstrated in the previous sections.
Main scientific conclusions (possibly bullet point list) based on 5-10 key results.

(f) Salient language {5 marks}
Freedom of spelling, grammatical and cross-referencing errors.
Use of appropriate scientific and academic language.

(g) Quality of cross-referencing, use of footnotes, etc. {5 marks}

(h) References {4 marks}

Any references used throughout the presentation of the work therein should be cited throughout the text of the final submitted document and be in strict adherence to our preferred Vancouver [1] (or Harvard) standard [4]. It is therefore highly recommended 4 that you use LyX3 rather than MS-Word for the preparation of the final document. It should be noted that the final submission must be presented in the form of a formal report. Furthermore for a pass grade to be awarded this report must meet the minimal requirements at master’s degree level, with particular emphasis on the following.

1. The abstract reflects the work presented in the report
2. The introduction address the title and scope of the report reflects the learning outcomes being measured.
3. Each of sections and subsections are appropriately numbered and accurately labelled in the contents.
4. Ensure that you have written every sentence in the report yourself where this includes direct copying from translation software.
5. Ensure the work is a free as possible from grammatical errors (i.e. every sentence you have wrote make sense to you).

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