Question 1: Limitations of Traditional Models for Evaluating Transport Sustainability
Briefly discuss the limitations of using models such as Equation 1 for estimating environmental sustainability of the transport system.
Discuss the role transportation systems management and operations, and the supporting ITS can play in reducing emissions.
What ITS applications might you choose to investigate for use in Marford to address environment, economy, safety, social inclusion and accessibility?
Discuss potential performance measures you would recommend to enhance sustainability and livability in Marford.
Provide a brief discussion of each application.
For the network depicted in Figure Q1.1 and the travel time and distances given in Table Q1.1, use Dijkstra’s algorithm to estimate:
a) the shortest route from Brighton to Exeter
b) the route from Brighton to Exeter with the lowest carbon footprintprint. Assume carbon footprint could be estimated using Equation:
1. Briefly discuss the limitations of using models such as Equation 1 for estimating environmental sustainability of the transport system. In your asnwers, clearly indicate the route and the distance for 1a, and the route and carbon footprint for:
2. Evaluation and applications of ITS (50%) Marford is a small city in a central England, with a population of 200,000 and 500 cars per 1000 people. After years of depopulation in the surrounding rural area, this is finally starting to increase in population, due in part to an influx of city dwellers looking more affordable homes outside the city of London. However, much of the rural population remains elderly and at risk of social exclusion due to poor transport links. Marford itself had an industrial base that was historically based on textiles and coal, but this has now gone into decline and tourism is now a key industry. However, the service sector is also growing in importance, with much of the employment in that sector now concentrated on a business park on the edge of town, close to the main junction with the national motorway network. Major retail development is also planned here. Economically, Marford is performing at a level that is below average, but not so far below average that it is seen to merit major government intervention. Although the motorway bypasses Marford to the north and west, the main road from the motorway to another major town to the south runs right through the middle of the city.
Through traffic, including heavy goods vehicles, has a negative impact on the city’s historic district. In addition, congestion is compounded by many local trips made by car within the city and by the city dwellers coming into Marford to shop at new shopping malls. Consequently, the city centre is at risk of breaching the EU’s 2010 limits on oxides of nitrogen, and the poor environment threatens the town’s tourist industry. However, due to the anticipated impact of Brexit, the county government has made it clear that there is unlikely to be money available within the next ten years to pay for a bypass for the city. Marford’s Transport Plan for the city and the surrounding area has the following objectives:
1. Environment – protecting historic built environments as well as the natural environment.
2. Economy – to use transport to ensure that the economy prospers.
3. Safety – to ensure the safety of all road users, but especially vulnerable road users and pedestrians like the elderly Social inclusion - to meet the transport needs of all social groups.
4. Accessibility – to make sure that, as far as possible, all destinations become easier to reach, although not necessarily by all modes of transport.
Currently there are no ITS applications in use in Marford. Given a limited budget and the uncertain political conditions: Use the attached location map to illustrate your vision for Marford in terms of ITS to enhance sustainability and livability.