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Development of Urban Space: Study Guide for Department of Geography

Development of Urban Space Only stud y g uid e f o r DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY Revised by: Pro f And re Horn U N I VER SI TY OF SOU TH AF R I C A, PR ETOR I A © 2017 University of South Africa All rights reserved Printed and p ublished by the University of South Africa Muckleneuk, Pretoria GGH3704/1/2018 –2020 70545863 images used InDes ign HSY_ Style GGH3704/1/2018 –2020 (iii) C O N T E N T S Page Intro ductio n Lea rning uni t 0: Introdu ction and ov erview v 1 0.1 Introduction 0.2 The purpos e and ou tcom es of the module 1 0.3 Structure of the module 3 0.4 Assignments 4 0.5 Examination 5 Lea rning uni t 1: Urbanisation an d Urban Geo grap hy 6 1.1 Introduction 6 1.2 Learning ou tcom es and reading 7 1.3 Learning content 8 1.3.1 The study of urban geo graphy 8 1.3.2 Urbanisation: processes and ou tcom es 10 1.4 Summary 12 1.5 Test yourself 12 Lea rning uni t 2: Urban isation, Cities and Urba n Life 14 2.1 Introduction 14 2.2 Learning ou tcom es and reading 14 2.3 Learning content 15 2.3.1 The definition of a city 15 2.3.2 Urbanisation levels 16 2.3.3 Urbanism (as a way of life) 18 2.4 Summary 19 2.5 Test yourself 20 Lea rning uni t 3: The Origin s and Growth of Cities an d Urban Life 21 3.1 Introduction 21 3.2 Learning ou tcom es and reading 21 3.3 Learning content 22 3.3.1 Preconditions for urbanisation and theories of urban origins 22 3.3.2 Urban origins 23 3.3.3 Internal structure of the earliest cities 25 3.3.4 Urban e xpans ion from the regions of urban origin 25 3.3.5 Frontier urbanisation and the mercantile city 28 3.4 Summary 28 3.5 Test yourself 29 Lea rning uni t 4: Urba n Growth and Sys tem s 30 4.1 Introduction 30 4.2 Learning ou tcom es and reading 30 (iv) 4.3 Learning content 31 4.3.1 Three recent phases of urban growth and development 31 4.3.2 Urbanisation: classical theories and typologies 35 4.4 Summary 38 4.5 Test yourself 38 Lea rning uni t 5: Changin g Urban Form 39 5.1 Introduction 39 5.2 Learning ou tcom es and reading 39 5.3 Learning content 40 5.3.1 Ch anging urban form 40 5.3.2 Cities in different parts of the world 43 5.3.3 Consolidation of terminology 44 5.4 Summary 45 5.5 Test yourself 45 Lea rning uni t 6: Urba n Dy na mi cs and the Reside ntial Mosaic 46 6.1 Introduction 46 6.2 Learning ou tcom es and reading 46 6.3 Learning content 47 6.3.1 Urbanisation: processes and p op ulation shifts 47 6.3.2 Social inter action, polarisation and residential segregation 48 6.4 Summary 51 6.5 Test yourself 51 Lea rning uni t 7: Urban isation and Urba n Problem s in the Les s Develope d Countries 52 7.1 Introduction 52 7.2 Learning ou tcom es and reading 53 7.3 Learning content 53 7.3.1 Urbanisation in the less develope d countries 53 7.3.2 Urban form and land use in less develope d countries 54 7.3.3 Urban prob lems in less develope d countries and solutions thereto 55 7.3.4 Re sponses to the prob lems of urbanisation in less develope d countries 55 7.4 Summary 58 7.5 Test yourself 58 Lea rning uni t 8: Conclusion 59 8.1 Summary 59 8.2 Con clusion 60 GGH3704/1 (v) IN T R O D U C T IO N De ar Student Intro du ction You are receiving this document, the GGH3704 study gu ide, to provide you with ins ight into what information is being presented in this module. I wo uld like to take this opportunity to welcom e you as a student of the GGH3704: De velopment of Urban Space module. Throughou t the course of the semester, we are going to take an in-depth look at cities, their develop ment and challeng es. I trust that you will enjoy this module. I ho pe that the knowledge and ins ight that you are going to acquire will not only be of theoretical value, bu t will also have som e practical utility for you. Th is document will provide you with ins ight as to what information is presented on myUnisa, the official learning management system of the university. Your Study Guide contains all the information available on myUnisa at the time of going to print. Thus, you will have a copy of your learning units, FAQs, discussion forums top ics and other information used in the module at hand throughou t your studies. It also contains the Getting Started Letter. In this letter, you will find information on myUnisa, how to access it, what the icons mean and how to study online. If you have any queries regarding GGH3704 or wo uld like to discuss your studies for this module, you are welcom e to contact your lecturer using the contact details provided be low or posting a message in the Discussion Forums on myUnisa. Your lecturer’s contact details are also available in the FAQs section in this Study Guide as well as online on myUnisa. Kind regards Your lecturer Prof André C Horn (ho rnac@ (vi) INT RODU CTION 1.1 GETTIN G S TARTED LETTER Welcome to the module GGH3704: Development of Urban Space . I hope that your experience of this module will be both enjoyable and enriching. You a re invited to notify your lectu rer should any academic or logistical issues arise that he/she may not be awa re of. Th is letter contains important information to get you started. GOING ONLI NE USING THE NAVIGATION BAR AND myUnisa TOOLS PLANNING AND M ANAGING YOUR TI M E PARTICIPATING IN THE ONLI NE LEARNING COM M UNI TY CL OSING REM ARKS GOING ONLINE As a registered Unisa student you will have access to the myUnisa electronic portal. From here yo u can access various online resources to assist yo u in yo ur studies . Please claim your UNISA login and set up your myLife e-mail and fami liarise yourself with the My studies @ Unisa brochure and other gu idelines FIGU RE 1 The hom e pag e of the myUn isa electroni c portal GGH37 04/1 (vii) Introdu ction It will also be very helpful if you browse through som e of the student orientation videos available on myUnisa. Once yo u have registered for the module and have yo ur myUnisa login details, you will have access to the module sites of all the modules you are registered for, including GGH3704. From the different module sites yo ur lecturers , fellow -students and sup port staff are just a click aw ay. USING THE NAVIGATION BAR AND myUnisa TO OLS You can use various navigation options, displayed on the left-hand side of the screen, to navigate yo ur way through the module site. Click on the spe cific navigation option (som etimes also called myUnisa tools), and it will ope n the page containing the information you are looking for. The first page you will see when ope ning any site is the hom e page. FIGURE 2 Exam ple of the GGH3704 Hom e Pag e Below is an alphabetical list and explanation of the myUnisa options that you will be able to choos e from on this module site. myUnisa op tions Explanation Additional Resou rce s This too l allows you to acc es s differe nt typ e s of reso ur ces relevant to yo ur mo dule, for examp l e articles, web links, ima ge s, PowerPoint Prese ntatio ns, reco mmend e d read ing, etc. These additional reso urces will su pport you r lea rnin g in this spe cific mo dule. Us e this too l often, as new reso ur ces will be uplo ad ed during the cou rse of the sem ester. Anno uncemen ts From tim e to tim e, you will be ale rted to im po rtant informatio n via an an no un ceme nt. You will also receive an e-mail notification in this reg ard. The anno unceme nt too l will store all the anno unceme nts on the mo dule site that were se nt out b y your lecture r thro ug ho ut the sem ester. The mo st recent anno unceme nts are als o disp l ayed on the home pa ge. (viii) INT RODU CTION myUnisa op tions Explanation As signm en ts This too l allows you to su b mi t assig nme nts electronically an d mo nitor yo ur asses sme nt results. Pleas e su b mi t written assig nme nts in PDF format. Discus sion Forums You r lectur er will freque ntly po st discussion topics in which you can pa rticipate, as these forums will help you whe n d o in g assig nme nts an d p rep a ring for the exam. You can als o create discussion forums if ther e is a topic you wo ul d like to be discussed. You will f ind a spe cific forum for stud e nts only (Stud e nt Lounge), wher e you can create you r own discussions sho ul d you wish to do so. I en cou rage you to visi t the discussion forums reg ula rly to lea rn an d as k questio ns. Blog s The Blogs tool is use d mo stly for reflective activ itie s. Sho uld you req ui re assistan ce in setting up you r blog, consult the FAQs sectio n an d you will find directio ns to assist you und e r the categ o ry “Techni cal issues”. Drop Box The drop box is an electronic po st box wher e you an d you r lecture r can po st docume nts to each othe r. Only you an d the lecture r hav e acc es s to you r drop box. Pleas e note that this facility is only us ed as a backu p optio n in this mo d ul e. You are not allowed to su b mi t you r assig nme nts her e for forma l asses sme nt. FAQs (freq uen tl y asked que stions) The FAQs tool provid e s que stio ns and an sw ers relating to g ener al Unisa matters, as well as mo dule-related informatio n. If you hav e any que ries about the mo dules, start b y consulting the FAQs. Sho u ld you not f ind an an swer to you r questio n, p leas e feel free to contact you r lecture rs. As stud e nts as k me questio ns thro ug h the sem ester, I will furthe r po p ul ate the FAQs. Le arnin g Units This too l is the one that you will us e mo st often for this mo dule. Here you will find an outline of the lea rnin g units cov ered in the mo dule as well as content su pporting the lea rning outco me s. The Lea rning Units tool als o provide s informatio n about lea rning activitie s, asses sme nts an d links to othe r valuab l e reso ur ces. It is im po rtant to note that the informatio n und e r this optio n mu st be us ed in conjun ction with that in you r prescribe d boo k. Officia l Study Material and Additional Resou rce s This tool allows you to acc ess and downloa d the official study material, su ch as Tutorial Le tter 101 and the Study Guide. Su p p l e m e ntary g ener al tutorial letters are availab l e via the Additio na l Reso ur ces too l in the “Tutorial Letters” folde r. Prescribed Books This too l is us ed to disp l ay the details of the prescribe d boo k, recommend ed boo ks an d e-Rese rves. Pleas e note that the jou rna l articles listed provide only a starting point, an d that you are exp ected to sear ch mo re b ro a dly to ad d mo re recent an d updated resear ch informatio n on the relevant study them es. Polls This too l provides you with an oppo rtunity to give you r inp ut reg ar ding the mo dule content or vote on variou s issues in the field of urba n dev elo p me nt. GGH3704/1 (ix) Introdu ction myUnisa op tions Explanation Sc hed ule The schedule disp l ays the su b mi ssion dates of the comp uls ory assig nme nts an d the date of the examin atio n. The calend a r on the home pa ge will als o display the dates of the various learning activ itie s captured in the sche du le. To get mo r e inf ormation on the sche du led events, click on the rel evant date in the calend a r (which will be high lighted an d und e rlined if activitie s are scheduled for that day), or click on the sche du le optio n on the me nu/nav i g ati o n ba r, which gives you the optio n to view the calend a r by week , mo nth or yea r. You can als o us e the schedule to p la n an d mana ge you r tim e so that you can kee p up with the variou s lea rnin g activitie s for this programm e. Unfortunately you will n ot be ab l e to ad d or chan ge schedule entries. PLANNING AND MA NAGING YOUR TIME Attemp ting to b alance study, wo rk, f amily life and e xtracurricular a ctivities is a challenge that might require of yo u to manage ever-increasing and compe ting demands. You therefore need to plan an app ropriate schedule that will suit your individual needs and circumstances. Here are som e recommendations to help you manage yo ur time. Given the time constraints, yo u may find yo urself following som e of these recommendations con currently. Browse throug h the module site Take time to browse thro u gh your modu le site (acc ess myU nisa) and the Study Guide an d f ami liarise you rself with the requ ireme nts for an d d emand s of this modu le. Th e FAQs tool on the modu le site is a valua ble reso urce and could be a us eful starting point. Cons ide r you r persona l circumstan ces an d determi n e how they will fit in with the due dates of the assig nme nts for each mo dule you hav e. It may be a goo d ide a to enter these dates in you r diary imm ediately. Plan ahead a nd co mpile a persona l study timetabl e De cide on strategies for p lannin g ahea d, an d comp il e you r persona l study timetab l e. Be discipli n e d in keep i n g to your schedule. The amo unt of information p rese nted on the modu le site and the nu mb e r of assign me nts to be co mp l eted may see m ov erwhelmin g at first, but don’t be dishea rten ed! Work systema ticall y throug h your module site Work you r way syst em atically thro ug h the variou s lea rnin g units, activitie s an d assig nme nts. Us e the lea rnin g outcomes an d asses sme nt criteria, the su ppo rting material an d activitie s as found atio n for the knowledge an d skills you nee d to develo p. To he lp you ap p ro ach your studies with mo re con fidence, you might find it helpful to start by browsin g thro ug h the mo dule site, an d to get acquai nted with the lea rnin g outcomes an d asses sme nt criteria, the ad ditio na l reso ur ces, recommend ed rea ding an d activitie s. The activitie s are design ed to divide you r work in mana geab l e “chun ks ”, to help you achiev e the lea rnin g outcomes in a logical an d syst em atic way. Us e up-to-date resou rces Loo k furthe r tha n the mo dule content an d the list of recommend ed rea ding. Acad em ic text boo ks an d scientific jou rna l articles shou ld be rega rded as you r prima ry so ur ces of knowledge. They are pa rticula rly us eful in providing in- de pth, resear ch-b as ed finding s. (x) INT RODU CTION Con tact your fellow-studen ts Try to reg ula rly ma ke contact with you r pee rs (via the Stud e nt Lounge an d othe r forums und e r the Discussio n Forums me nu optio n). Discuss chal len ging concepts an d theme s with you r fellow-st u d e nts, to bro ad e n you r und e rstan ding ther eof. You will find that participating in discussions an d continuo u s l y reflecting on you r lea rnin g will help you to e xp an d you r knowledge b as e an d dev elo p new skills that you can app ly in the workplace. Most stud e nts find thes e discussions (eithe r lecturer-dire cted or with fellow-stud e nts) extremel y us eful whe n p rep a ring thei r assig nme nts. Ask wh en you ne ed help It is im po rtant to reach out to you r lecture rs an d as k for help the mo me nt that you e xp erien ce any difficultie s with any as pe ct of this mo dule. You will f ind you r lecture r’s contact informatio n und e r the FAQs sectio n on the mo d ul e site. You can als o contact your lecturer or the e-tutor via the discussion forums, or othe r mean s of comm unicatio n indicated und e r the FAQs optio n. Do not struggle on you r own, or wait until the last mi nut e before you as k for help. Remem ber, you r mai n objective is to be succ es sful in you r studies this sem ester an d help is just a click away. PARTICIPATING IN THE ONLINE LEARNING COMM UNITY If yo u have taken online courses before, yo u may well be familiar with ho w to participate in online environments. Ho wever, if you are new to online learning, you may be interested in how to go abou t communicating in cybe rspace. An important aspect of online communities is how peop le relate to each other. As you may know, the internet – cybe rspace – has its own culture and accom panying conv entions for e-mails, social networks and mo re formal online environments such as myUnisa, our learning management system . W hen co mmunicating electronically, pe ople often forget that the pe rson on the receiving end is som eon e with feelings, facial expressions, gestures and a unique ton e of voice. Withou t being able to obs erve these communication cues, it is quite possible to misinterpret the other pe rson’s meaning. With online communication, meaning is usually conv eyed by written words only. Because of this limitation, it wo uld be a good idea to fami liarise yourself with gu idelines on netiquette (social codes/etiquette for the internet – available at http://ww corerules.htm l). Please note that when participating in the online discussions, we strongly recommend that you address yo ur lecturers and fellow-stud ents at the beginning of your response. Also , when you end your contribution, sign off by using yo ur name (or title and surname). Th is will serve as an indication of how you wo uld like your lecturers and fellow -students to address you. We urge you to make an effort and commit to following these gu idelines to ensure that your communication and a ctions online are respectful. CLOSING REMARKS Please familiarise yourself with the online environment as soon as you are registered for this module and have access to myUnisa. To get started, please access Forum 1: Student Lounge and introduce yourselves to each other (Discussion 1). GGH37 04/1 (xi) Introdu ction I look forward to witnessing yo ur progress and growth on a personal and professional level during the year. It is truly a pleasure having you as a student, and I wish you well with your studies. Your lecturer Prof Andre Horn e-mail: ho rnac@ 1.2 W ELCOM E MESSAGE ON THE HOM E PAGE Welcom e to the De velopment of Urban Space (GGH3704)! I am Prof Andre Horn and I will be gu iding you through this module and I sincerely ho pe that you will enjoy this learning expe rience. The aim of this module is to provide students with the necessary kno wledg e and skills to apply a geographical perspe ctive to cities and their development. The geographical pe rspective is essentially spatio-temporal, which imp lies that on e needs to be able to identify spatial patterns in cities, how they change over time, interpret these and provide solutions to developmental prob lems in cities globally and loc ally. Th is module is offered according to a blend ed ap proa ch. Th is means that while the Study Guide and Tutorial Letter 101 may be provided to yo u in print ob taining access to the prescribe d textbo ok is your own respons ibility. Mo reover, further tutorial letters, additional study material, discussion forums et c., are only available online. Al l assignments (even if handwritten) must be submitted online. Please read through the Gettin g Started Letter (if yo u have not yet done so) to fami liarise yourself with what is expected of you when studying online. I also recommend that you do n’t wait until the last minu te to submit your assignments – just in case the technology does not work. (xii) INT RODU CTION Th is module has bee n designed to provide you with op portunities to easily co mmunicate with your lecturer, your e-tutor, as well as your fellow -students, using the online discussion forums. Most of our communication will therefore take place through myUnisa, so please fami liarise yourself with this module site so that you can get the most ou t of studying this module online. To get started with this module, read Tutorial Letter 101, which you can also access via the Official Study Material menu or the Ad ditional Re sources option. Tutorial Letter 101 contains important information abou t the prescribe d textbook and myUnisa, as well as the format and content of your assignments and examination. You can then click on the Discussion Forums option and introduce yourself to your fellow -students in Forum 1: Stud ent Lounge. I am looking forward to meeting you online and ho pe that you enjoy the journey offered by this module. Kind regards, Your lecturer for this module, Professor Andre Horn Tel: 011 471 2168 e-mail: ho rnac@ GGH37 04/1 (xiii) Introdu ction 1.3 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs) The following are a few of the Frequently asked Questions (FAQs) that you will also find on the myUnisa module site. Please note that this list could change through the semester. Thus, I recommend that you check myUnisa regularly for possible update. Catego ry Que stions an d Answers Techni cal issue s rela ted to myUnisa Que stion 1: How do I pa rtici pate in the discus sion forums? An swer : You hav e to be on the GGH3704 mo dule site on myUni sa in ord e r to pa rticipate in the variou s discussions. Simp l y log on to myUni sa, acc es s the mo dule site for GGH3704 b y clicking on the oran ge tab. There after, the Home pa ge of the GGH3704 mo dule site will op en an d on the left-han d side of the scree n you will se e the Discussion Forum tab . Click on the Discussion Forums tab , choo se a forum to pa rticipate in, an d write your mess ag e in the textbox at the bottom of the scree n. You can choos e to res pon d to a co mme nt/que ry from a fellow-classm ate, or create you r own topic. Participating in online discussions provides you with the oppo rtunity to • discuss an d clarify issues related to the content of this mo dule • shar e exp erien ces an d id ea s with you r pee rs, e-tutor an d lecture r • solve prob lem s collabor atively with you r pee rs • d eb ate topical issues about the dev elo p me nt of urba n sp ace with you r pee rs • raise any que stions or un certainties you may have about the topi c und e r discussion • discuss recent dev elo p me nts in the su bject are a • receive feedback on questio ns you hav e rais ed • acc es s ad ditio na l reso ur ces on relevant topics in this su bject Que stion 2: How do I crea te a new discus sion forum topic? An swer : To create a new topic in a forum , you hav e to do the following: 1. Sele ct and acc ess a forum (e.g. the Stude nt Loun ge Forum) on the list of forums und e r the Discussion Forums optio n. 2. Now, at the top of the pa ge, select the optio n: Add a New Topic. 3. Write a descriptive nam e for you r topic in the Topic Title box. 4. In the Mes sage box, write down the instructio ns for the discussion/give some detail about what you wo ul d like to discuss. 5. Click on the Submit button to create you r topic for discussion. Please no te: You r lecture r/e-tutor will create variou s forum s an d topics for discussion. Pleas e try not to ad d any topics to these forums unles s a pa rticul a r topic ha s not bee n discussed yet. Also, us e the Stud e nt Lounge forum to create topics that are not spe cifically related to the acad emi c content of the mo dule. (xiv) INT RODU CTION Catego ry Que stions an d Answers Que stion 3: How do I set up my own blog? An swer : The Blogs tool is a g re at tool to use in this modu le to sha re your views and tho ug hts reg ar ding this mo dule with you r fellow stud e nts. To get you r own Blo g started, follow these instructio ns: 1. Go to the Blog s too l. 2. Click on ‘Add blog entry’ link at the top to start you r blog. 3. Give you r blog entry a title. ? You cou ld us e somethin g like “Reflec tions on my learning exp erien ce in this mo dule.” This is just an examp l e title... ? You r nam e will aut omatically sh ow next to this blog entry. 4. The n typ e you r mess age ins ide the text box provided. 5. After the text box, you are as ked to “choo se who can se e this entry”. 6. The default setting of the blog is ticked: “This entry is pu blicl y view abl e” ? You sho ul d NOT chan ge this be caus e this is the only way that anyone can rea d you r reflectio ns an d leav e you comme nts. ? If you are not qu ite finish ed, you can click on the ‘Save Dr aft’ button but no one else will be ab l e to rea d you r blog until you click on ‘Pu blish entry.’ [Note: if you save a draft, you will have to click on the “This entry is pub licly view abl e” whe n you are finish ed an d want to Pu blish.] 7. If you want to ad d a comment to so meo ne’s blog, just click on the “Leav e a comme nt” link at the bottom of the blog you are rea ding. You can ad d links, b ull ets, lists an d colou r, etc if you want by usin g the editing buttons. You can als o go back, delete an d edit you r blogs. You can create new blogs on different topi cs by jus t click ing on ‘Add blog entry’ again which will appe ar und e r you r nam e ag ai n. Study ma terial for this module Que stion 1: Wha t study ma terial is availabl e for this module? An swer : This mo dule aim s to incorpor ate the practical an d theo retical rea litie s of the field of urba n devel o p m e nt. Conseque ntly, your study material ha s b ee n cho se n ba se d on this fact. Thus, you hav e a variety of reso ur ces availab l e to you. This mo dule will ma ke us e of the following reso ur ces: • A prescribe d textb o o k (se e Questio n 2 b el ow) • Online lea rnin g units als o provided to you in the form of the GGH3704 Stu dy Guide docume nt. • Tutorial Le tter GGH37 04/101 availa ble online and provided in print by the Dep a rtme nt of De sp atch • Furthe r tutorial letters that will be releas ed as the mo dule progres ses NOTE: You r lecture r can not help you with ou tstan ding stud y material. Pleas e en qu ire about this by sen ding a SM S to 43 579 (only stud e nts in South Africa) or an e-mai l to desp atch@ GGH3704/1 (xv) Introdu ction Catego ry Que stions an d Answers Que stion 2: Wha t are the details of my prescribed textbook ? The details of you r prescribe d textb o o k are as follows: Authors: Knox, Paul L an d McCa rthy, Lind a M Title: Urb ani zat io n: An Introductio n to Urba n Geo grap hy (Thir d Editio n) Publication date: 2014 Publisher: Pea rson ISB N: 97 8-1-29 2-03916-9 To obtain the boo k b y Knox an d McCarthy, consult the list of official boo ksh ops an d thei r ad dres ses listed in the brochure my Studies @ Unisa. If you hav e any difficulti es obtai ni n g the boo k from these boo kshops, p l eas e consult the publicatio n my Studies @ Unisa for ad vi ce on what to do. You hav e to bu y the boo k by Knox an d McCarthy imm edia tely. You will not be able to make prog re ss with your studies if you do not have it. It is esse ntial to us e the prescribe d boo k from the start, in conjunctio n with the lea rni n g units on myUni sa/GGH3704 Stu dy Guide. Que stion 3: Wha t informa tion does Tutorial Le tter 101 con tain? An swer : The tutorial letter contain s important inf ormation about the reso urces and assignme nts for this mo du le. More spe cifically, your tutorial letter contain s all the information about your prescrib e d study material, your assignme nts, asses sme nt criteria, ins tructio ns for the assign me nts, asse ssme nt marking rubrics, the examin atio n an d an exp lan atio n of you r fina l ma rk calculatio n. We, ther efore, urge you to rea d it carefully an d to kee p it at han d whe n working thro ug h you r study material. Pleas e remem ber that you do not hav e to wait until you receive this informatio n in the po st be caus e all har d-copy study material is availab l e electronically on myUni sa. Que stion 4: Wha t informa tion does the Study Guide do cu men t con tain? Answer: The Stu dy Guide docume nt is es se ntiall y a print-out of all the informatio n that is availab l e on myUni sa at the tim e of print. It contain s potential discussion forum topics, the FAQs an d, mo st im po rtantly, you r lea rnin g units. This docume nt was dev elo p e d becaus e we und e rstan d that it is not always possib l e to acc es s the internet. Howev er, you mu st be aw are that this mo du le will be taug ht prima rily online an d that the online content will, inevitab l y, chan ge an d be ad a pted as the ne ed arises. It is for this reas on that we strongl y en cou rage you to acces s myUnisa at least on ce a week to che ck for any po ssible updates, to access the additi ona l res o urces and e-re s e rves, to participate in the discussion forums, an d to eng a ge with you r e-tutor an d lecture r. (xvi) As ses smen t Type Con tributi o n to year mark Con tributi o n to fina l mark Sub- minimu m Formative Assig nme nt 1 50% 20% – Assig nme nt 2 50% 20% – Summ ative Venue-b as ed examin atio n – 60% 40% INT RODU CTION Catego ry Que stions an d Answers Que stion 5: Is it neces sary to acces s myUnisa wh en I have a copy of the printed out ma terial? An swer : The simp l e an swer for this is: yes! The material that you received (espe ciall y with reg ar d to the Stu dy Guide) ha s bee n printed from what was availab l e at the tim e of go in g to print. Thus, informatio n on myUni sa will de finitely chan ge an d grow thro ug ho ut the sem ester. It is for this reas on that we en cou rage you stron g l y to acces s myUnisa at least on ce a week to check for any pos sib l e updates, to acc es s the ad ditio na l reso ur ces an d e-Rese rves, to pa rticipate in the discussion forums an d to eng a ge with you r e-tutor an d lecture r. As ses smen t Que stion 1: How will I be as ses sed? An swer : Sev eral differe nt asses sme nt strategies will be emp loy ed in this mo dule. Firstly, you will hav e to sub mi t two assign ments for ma rking as pa rt of the formative asse ssme nt. Th e assign me nts are weighted eq uall y and togethe r count 40% of the f ina l ma rk. Se cond l y, you r su mm ative asses sme nt comp rises a two-ho ur examin atio n at the en d of the sem ester that will count 60% of the f ina l ma rk. To g ai n acc es s to the examin atio n you will hav e to su b mi t Assig nme nt 1 on tim e. To pa ss the modu le you mus t achieve a fina l mark of at leas t 50% with a su bminimu m of 40% for the examin ation. To qua lify for a su p p leme ntary examin atio n you mu st achiev e a su b minim um of 40%. A summa ry of the g ene ric struct u r e of assess m e nt in GGH3704 is presented be low. Que stion 2: How can I submit my as signm en ts? You may su b mi t you r assig nme nts eithe r via po st or electronically via myUni sa. To su b mi t you r assig nme nt in har d copy, you can drop it off at you r near est Unisa bran ch or you co ul d po st it to: The Registrar PO Box 392 Unisa 00 03 GGH37 04/1 (xvii) Introdu ction Catego ry Que stions an d Answers To su b mi t you r assig nme nt via myUni sa: • Sele ct the Assignme nts too l to the left of the me nu bar in the GGH3704 mo dule site • Se lect the assig nme nt nu mber that you want to su b mi t • Follow the instructio ns provided on scree n Electro nically sub mi tted assig nme nts will be ma rked an d returned to you electronically. Thus, you will receive you r feedback faster tha n if you su b mi tted in har d copy via po st. It is for this reas on that we recommen d that you su b mi t you r assig nme nts via myUni sa, if pos sib l e. Pleas e note that assig nme nts may no t be su b mi tted by fax or emai l. For detailed informatio n an d requ ireme nts as far as you r assig nme nts are concerned, p leas e se e my Studies @ Unisa that you received with you r study material. Sho ul d you hav e que ries about the su b mi ssion of assig nme nts you can contact the Uni sa Assig nme nt Dep a rtme nt by calling 011 471 2039 or e-mai ling assign @ Que stion 3: Wh ere can I find my as signm en t que stion s? An swer : Pleas e note that you can find a full discussion of you r assig nme nt questio ns in Tutorial Letter 101. Pleas e remem ber that the assig nme nts for se me ster 1 an d sem ester 2 are different. The refore, p le ase an sw er the ap p ro p riate seme ster’s que stio ns , as ans wers to incorrect assig nme nts will no t be marked. Mo re ov er, you sho uld su b mi t Assig nme nt 1 as Assig nme nt 1 an d not as Assig nme nt 2, an d vice versa. Que stion 4: How will I receive feedba ck on my as signm en ts? An swer : Due to the unique individua l natur e of the assig nme nts for GGH3704, it is not pos sib l e to comp il e mo de l an swers or comme ntaries that will be ap p licab l e in g ener al and su pp ly this to all stud e nts. However, a cus tomise d rubric ha s bee n comp il ed for each assig nme nt, an d stud e nts hav e acc es s to this right from the start. These rubrics provide a clea r indicatio n of what is requ ired an d how ma rks will be allocated. The lecture r/ma rker will sen d back the relevant rubric, togethe r with each assignme nt that has b ee n received, an d indicate on it how the allocated ma rks have be en de rived. This automatical ly also se rves as commentary an d feedback on the assig nme nt. Que stion 5: Can the due date for as signm en ts be exten ded? An swer : No, once due dates hav e bee n registered, these are admini stered by the Uni sa Ex am i n ati o n Se ctio n. Only the Unisa Ex a mi n ati o n Se ctio n can exten d su bmission dates. (xviii) INT RODU CTION Catego ry Que stions an d Answers Que stion 6: How do I know if Unisa received my assignm en t after submission? An swer : Normall y, you will receive an SM S informin g you that you r assig nme nt ha s bee n received. If you sub mi t on myUni sa, you will receive an electronic receipt. Howev er, if this doe s not hap pen an d you wou ld like to f ind out about its status, you are welcome to sen d a mess age to assig n@ or call 011 471 2949. You can als o track you r assig nme nt on myUni sa. Que stion 7: Wha t hap pen s if my as signm en t is late? An swer : All assign me nts sho uld be submitted thro u gh the prescribe d p ro cess im plying that assig nme nts cann ot be su b mi tted to the lecture r directly. It sho ul d als o be noted that lecture rs are given a limi ted period in which to register assig nme nt ma rks. Pleas e do not hesitate to contact you r lecture r in tim e about anythin g that may negatively imp act on you r studies for this mo dule. Que stion 8: How do I qua lify for the examina tion? An swer:In order to g ai n entry to the e xamin atio n, you nee d to complete an d su b mi t Assig nme nt 1 on tim e. Your yea r ma rk will be calculated by usin g the total you received for all the assig nme nts. These assig nme nts will be formall y evalu ated b y you r lecture r an d mu st be su b mi tted on or before the stip ul ated due date. Late assig nme nts will n ot be ma rked. Que stion 9: Wh en do I write my examina tion? An swer : The examination period for this module occurs twice a year; in May/June or Octobe r/ Nov em ber. During the cou rse of the sem ester, the Examin atio n Dep a rtme nt will provide you with informatio n rega rding the examin atio n in gene ral, e.g. the examin atio n venues, dates an d tim es. In the ev ent that you ne ed to write a su p p leme ntary examin atio n, su p p leme ntary examin atio n informatio n will be provided by the Examin atio n Dep a rtme nt. Sho ul d you have any general exa mi n ati o n q ue ries, p l eas e contact the Examin ati o n Dep a rtme nt on Exams@ un alternatively you co ul d SM S the m on 43 548 (for South African stud e nts only). Que stion 10: Wha t can I expect in the examina tion? An swer : You will be requ ired to write a two-ho u r examin atio n pa per for this mo dule. The pa per will consi st of both ess ay an d pa rag rap h questio ns. The total ma rks for the pa per will be 100. You r examin atio n contributes 60% to you r fina l ma rk. Guidel i n es for the exa mi n at i o n can be obtain ed from myU nisa und er the Ad ditio na l Reso ur ces too l. GGH3704/1 (xix) Introdu ction Catego ry Que stions an d Answers Que stion 11: Will I be abl e to acces s pa st examina tion pa pers? An swer : Previo us ex a mi n ati o n pa pe rs are availa ble on myU nisa. However, we reco mmen d that you do not focus you r ene rgy on studying ON LY from pa st examin atio ns as the content an d format of the examin atio n pa per differs from yea r to yea r. Que stion 12: Wha t is the scope of the examina tion? An swer : Pleas e note that you will be ab l e to f ind the scop e of the e xamin atio n und e r the Additio na l Reso ur ces too l of the mo dule site. You can downloa d this informatio n once it is availab l e. You sho ul d als o note that an anno unceme nt will be publish ed on the site (an d se nt to you via e-mai l) once the docume nt is availab l e. If you hav e difficulty acc es sin g this docume nt, you may contact you r e-tutor or lecture r for assistan ce. Student suppo rt services Que stion 1: Whom sho uld I con tact ab out admin istrative queries? An swer : All admini strative en qu iries for the Dep a rtme nt of Geo grap hy sho ul d be directed to the d ep a rtme ntal secretary, Ms Hellen e Stee nkam p, at: Tel: +27 (0)11 471 36 89 Emai l: steenh [email protected] Qu es tion 2: Whom sho uld I con tact rega rding GGH3704 academi c queries? An swer : All que ries related to the content of the GGH3704: Dev elo p me nt of Urba n Space mo dule sho ul d be directed to you r lecture r (or e-tutor, if ap p licab l e). You can contact me telep h onically during office ho u rs (8: 30-16:00). Pleas e note that you are als o welcome to e-mai l me or contact me on the discussion forums. It is recommend ed that leng thy que ries be ad dres sed via e-mai l. You are als o welcome to visi t me at my office on the Scien ce Camp u s b as ed in Florida. Howev er, you mu st ma ke an ap pointme nt beforehan d. Pleas e note that all ap pointme nts sho ul d be mad e at least three workin g days in advan ce. I can not gua rantee that I will be able to atten d to you if you arrive at the de pa rtme nt witho ut an ap pointme nt. My contact details are as follows: Prof Andre Horn Calab as h Building Ground Flo o r Scien ce Camp u s, Florida E-mai l: [email protected] Tel: +27 (0)11 471 2168 (xx) INT RODU CTION Catego ry Que stions an d Answers Que stion 3: Wha t othe r suppo rt service are av ailabl e rega rdin g gene r a l studen t ma tters? An swer : If you nee d to contact the uni versity about matters that are not related to the content of this mo dule, the n p leas e consult the publicatio n My studies @ Uni sa, which you wo ul d hav e received with you r study material. This boo klet contain s informatio n on how to contact the Uni versity (e.g. whom you sho ul d contact with differe nt que ries, im portant telep ho n e an d fax nu mb e rs, addres ses, details of the tim es certain facilitie s are op en, etc). Always provide your na me, stud e nt nu mb e r and the modu le code whe n you contact the university. Que stion 4: Are there any study grou ps for this module? An swer : The r e are no official study g ro ups for this module. However, we stro ng ly reco mmen d that you form you r own study g ro ups with fellow-stud e nts livin g in you r are a. To form study g ro ups, you can contact you r fellow-stud e nts on the discussion forum entitled Forum 1: Studen t Loun ge, Discus sion 3: Study grou ps. Contact stud e nts who live nea r you, an d invite the m to form a study g ro up. e-Tutors Que stion 1: Wha t is an e-tutor? An swer : An e-tutor is a person who will be dedicated to assist you with mo dule-related matters on myUni sa, on a spe cial e-tutor site for GGH3704. Upo n registratio n for this modu le, you will be allocated to an e-tutor and you will receive commun icati o n from Unisa confirmi n g that you have be en allocated to an e-tutor group. The e-tutor will b asi cally p rep ar e an online classroo m for you. He/sh e will hold discussion forums about the content of the mo dule, will e xp lai n difficult concepts, an d will provide ad ditio na l reso ur ces whe n necess ary. You r e-tutor will als o be ab l e to asses s you r test-you rself qu estio ns. Pleas e remem ber that you r succ es s with the e-tutor is directly related to you r interactio n with him/ he r. You r e-tutor can be an invaluab l e asset in you r succ es sful comp l etio n of this mo dule. Ther efore, you are strong l y en cou rage d to utilise this facility. Que stion 2: How do I con tact my e-tutor? An swer : Whe n you register for this mo dule an d you are allocated to an e-tutor, you will als o be linked to a spe cific e-tutor site. Thus, to contact you r e-tutor, you simp l y hav e to go onto you r allocated e-tutor site. The e-tutor is ther e to assist you with any que ries or uncertaintie s you may hav e about the mo dule, so p leas e feel free to contact him/ he r for any assistan ce you requ ire. GGH37 04/1 (xxi) Introdu ction Catego ry Que stions an d Answers Que stion 3: Wha t hap pen s if I am no t allocated to an e-tutor or if there is no e-tutor availabl e wh en I reg ister? An swer : It may sometim es hap pen that you are not allocated to an e-tutor, or the e-tutor facility is not activated yet. Often, these “teething ” issues are sorted out rel ativel y qu ickly, so ther e is no nee d for ala rm. However, sho uld you nee d assistan ce prior to the activatio n of the e-tutor facility, p leas e feel free to contact you r lecture r. Remem ber, you are linked to the mai n GGH3704 mo dule site an d you can po st your module-related qu eries on the discussion forum s as well, whe re your lectur er will be ab l e to assist until you are allocated to an e-tutor. Plagi arism Que stion 1: Wha t is plagi arism? An swer : Plag ia rism is a se riou s offen ce which is punishab l e by law. It is the act of taking the words, id ea s an d tho ug hts of othe rs an d pa ssin g the m off as you r own. It is a form of theft which involves a nu mber of dish onest acad emi c activitie s. Pl ag i a rism is ea sy to avoid by sim ply refere n cing your work correctly. If you req ui r e mo re informatio n on what p lag ia rism is, the n click her e: (http://ww w.p lag ia rism. org/p lag ia rism-101/what-is-p lag i a rism). Que stion 2: Wha t if I work together wi th other studen ts? An swer : Stud e nts are welcome to work tog ethe r whe n p rep a ring assig nme nts. Howev er, each stud e nt MUST write an d su b mi t his/he r own work. In othe r words, you mu st su b mi t you r own ideas in you r own words (backed by referen ces). You r work may contain direct quotes from so ur ces, but these mu st be prop erly indicated an d referen ced an d sho ul d constitute les s tha n 10% of the entire text. It is unacc eptab l e for stud e nts to su b mi t ide ntical assig nme nts on the b asi s that they hav e worked tog ethe r. At Uni sa, this is cons id er ed copying, which is a form of plag ia rism. The refore, su ch assign me nts will not be marked. Furthe rmo re, you may be pena lised or su bjected to disciplina ry proceeding s by the Uni versity. Que stion 3: How do I avoid com mitting plagi arism? An swer : You hav e to consult relevant literatur e for you r assig nme nts. Howev er, you may not copy this informatio n directly from the so ur ce. Instea d, you hav e to us e the information in the literature to jus tify your own opi nions . All the literature you hav e us ed mus t be referen ced correctly. This includes in-text referen cing, and the referen ce list at the back of you r assig nme nt. For guidelines on how to referen ce correctly, p leas e refer to the Re feren cing Guidelines which are availab l e on the Additio na l Reso ur ces tab on myUni sa. (xxii) INT RODU CTION 1.4 DI SCU SSION FORUM S Please note that these forums may not necessarily appear on the module site. Instead, they may ap pe ar on your e-Tutor site. Forums Topics Forum 1: Studen t Loun ge Use this forum to disc uss general ma tters amo ng you rselves Disc ussio n 1: Introd uce yourself Us e this sp ace to get to know you r fellow-stud e nts. Tell you r peers s o m ethi n g about you r current work s i tu ati o n, you r profes sio na l backg ro und an d somethin g about you personall y (± 250 words). Disc ussio n 2: Fellow-stud e nt contact de tails Us e this sp ace to shar e you r contact details with you r fellow-stud e nts. Disc ussio n 3: Stu dy groups Us e this sp ace to form study g ro ups amo ng you rselves. Forum 2: Mo dule- rela ted que stions Use this forum to ask adm inistrati ve or general acad emi c questions related to this mo dule Disc ussio n 1: General academi c question s If you hav e any questio ns about the acad emi c as pe cts of this mo dule, such as the prescribe d book , or the content of the stud y guide or the tutorial letters, p leas e po st you r questio n her e. Pleas e indicate the topic of yo ur que ry clea rly in you r mess age. Disc ussio n 2: Assign ments Please us e this sp ace to discuss any ma jor prob lem s or concerns you hav e about the comp l etio n or su b mi ssion of you r assig nme nts. Disc ussio n 3: Examina tions Pl eas e us e this space to discuss any q ue ries or concerns you have rega rding the examin atio n. Forum 3: Mo dule discus sions Use this forum to pa rticipa te in the various activ ities related to the content of this mo dule Pleas e note tha t various disc ussion s abou t the content of the modu le will be tak ing place on the GGH3704 site as well as your e-Tutor site. GGH3704/1 1 LEARNING UNIT 0: L E A R N IN G U N IT 0 Introductio n and ov erview 0.1 INTRODUCTION Welcom e to GGH3704: De velopment of Urban Space. I ho pe you will enjoy this module and f ind the contents stimulating and interesting. This module will be offered using a blend ed app roa ch as explained in the introduction. There are a numbe r of advantages to studying online. For examp le, you as a student will have greater flexibility and will therefore be able to plan and progress with your studies at your own pace. Online studies are also conv enient, because you can a ccess your study material on myUnisa from any electronic device with an internet connection, even from your mobile phon e (if it is able to). Som etimes, for whatever reason, you may find it difficult to access the internet. It is for this reason that you will be provided with a hard-copy print-ou t of the content of this module site, in the form of a Study Guide. Please note that this document is only part of the information ap pe aring on myUnisa at the time of going to print, and that the online material is very likely to change in the course of the semester. Therefore, you will still have to access myUnisa in order get the latest information, participate in the discussion forums, download additional resources and engage with your peers and your lecturer. 0.2 THE PUR PO SE AND OUTCOM ES OF THE MO DULE The central theme of this module is urban geo graphy and ap plying a geo graphical perspective to cities and their development. Mo re than half of the wo rld’s pop ulation is living in cities and even thos e who do not live in a city are influenced by urban lifestyles to som e degree. Purpo se This module explores the development of cities and focuses on urban structural and social mo rphologies, urban processes, environmental issues, mobility within urban areas , and urban development. Students who complete this module sho uld be able to ap ply a geo graphical pe rspective to cities and their development. The geo graphical pe rspective is essentially spatio-temporal which imp lies that on e needs to be able to identify spatial patterns in cities, how they change over time, interpret these and provide solutions to developmental prob lems in cities globally and loc ally. 2 Outcom es The following are the main ou tcom es and assessm ent criteria for this module: Ou tcom e s As ses smen t criteria 1. Comp ar e the lev els, growth an d patterns of urbanisation across the glo b e. • Ana lyse, co mp ar e an d interpret da ta an d information on the lev els, growth an d patterns of urb ani satio n at the world, contine ntal, regiona l an d natio na l scales. • Predict futur e chan ge s in the lev els, growth rates an d patterns of urban isati o n at differe nt scales an d anticipate the imp licatio ns ther eof. • Expl ain the differe nt functions of cities and the hierar chies of urba n syst em s. • Differentiate between the different appr oaches to the exp l an ati o n of urba n forms an d the devel o pme nt of citie s. 2. Appl y differe nt theo ries, mo dels, concepts an d p r o ces ses to urb ani satio n an d urba n form. • App ly classic theo ries su ch as central place theo ry an d its variatio ns to exp lain the distributio n of citie s in a natio na l framew ork as well as the distrib u tio n of variou s competitive functio ns within citie s. • Com pare the classical mod el s of the mo n ocentric city of the pa st to the large po lycentric city of today. • Interpret the chang in g form of So uth African citie s during the pa st century. • Expl ain the flux of intra-urba n social and physical struct u r e by mean s of relevant urba n concepts an d proces ses. 3. Ob se rve the urba n environment an d i d e nt i f y pat te r ns o r geo grap hi cal prob lem s rel ated to the dev elo p me nt of urba n sp ace. • Appl y the g eo grap hi cal perspe ctive to ide ntify patterns an d prob lem s in the urba n context. • Suppo rt ge ographical app licatio ns with evidence of a wide variety of so ur ces su ch as direct ob se rvatio n, the media, lan d us e map s, publish ed material an d the internet. • Prese nt an d communi cate informatio n an d own id ea s and op inions in well-struct u r ed geographical argu me nts. • Prese nt or describe spe cific ge ographic issu es and p ro b l e ms thro u gh the effective app licati o n of ge ographical lang uag e. 4. Place urba n pro b le m s within a g e o gr ap hi c al c o ntex tual fram ew ork. • Ide ntify sp atial patterns in urba n area s. • Identify so cial, eco no mic, po litical and environme ntal proces ses influen cing the dev elo p me nt of urba n sp ace. • Interpret local con ditio ns in relatio n to international conditio ns. • Us e theo ry-driven argume nts to su ppo rt the abov e. 5. Gathe r and use data and inf or- mation related to the develo p- me nt of urba n sp ace in ord e r to su gge st po ssible so lutio ns for ge ographical p ro b le ms to mak e recommendat i o ns to im pr ov e spe cified urba n social and sp atial challen ge s. • Ide ntify sp atial patterns on map s or remote sensin g imag es. • Collect an d ap p l y nu me rical an d grap hi cally prese nted data. • Effectively prese nt relev ant sp atial data on them atic map s. • Interpret them atic map s. • Appl y b asi c g eo grap hi cal techn iques. • Provide creative , evidence-ba se d so lutio ns to so cial and envir onme ntal prob lem s. GGH3704/1 3 LEARNING UNIT 0: Intro du ction and overview 0.3 STRUCTUR E OF THE MODULE Due to the online and practical nature of this module, it will be different from som e other modules that you may have encountered at Unisa. Th is module is structured around your study material (your textbook, the learning units and tutorial letters) and the assessm ent you have to comp lete. Study material Your study material for this module includes the following: (1) Tutorial Letter 101, which will provide an introduction to the module and all the important information to take note of for the entire semester. (2) Learning units on myUnisa. These will be your gu ide through the prescribe d textbook, reader and e-reserves. You will also receive a Study Guide, which is a printou t of all the information available on myUnisa at the time of going to print (please note, no new information can be add ed to this document; so you will still need to access myUnisa to check for any updated information). (3) A prescribe d textbook on which the content of the module is based. (4) E-reserves. These are a collection of electronic documents and readings avail- ab le from Unisa’s online library. If you have difficulty accessing any of these, please contact your subject librarian or download the step-by-step gu idelines und er the Additional Re sources tab of this site. Learning Units The module is presented through eight learning units, excluding Learning Unit 0: Introduction and overview. The learning units follow a standard structure of presentation, for examp le: Learning Unit 1 1.1 Introdu ction An introduction to the learning unit is presented. 1.2 Learning outcom es and reading Learning ou tcom es Reading 1.3 Learning content 1.3.1 M AIN THE M E • Sub-theme ? Activities – Internet phrases relevant to aspects of the learning unit 1.4 Summary 1.5 Test yo urself The Learning content is not a mere reproduction of the structure of the prescribe d textbo ok, but identifies important main themes, sub-themes and main points in relation to module and learning unit outcom es and brings together relevant information often from different chapters or parts of the textbook to create a logical whole. 4 The Activities section of each learning unit suggests learning activities that you can engage in. These activities are synchronised with a steady learning process and serve as a gu ideline for progress. The module may include two sets of discussion forums: one managed by the lecturer and another managed by the e-tutor. The test yourself que stions section provides identified possible examination que stions. A differentiation is ma de between ‘essay’ que stions (15–25 marks) and ‘sho rter’ or ‘paragraph’ questions (5–15 marks). There is no guarantee that all these que stions wo uld appear in the examination paper or that no other questions wo uld be included in the examination pape r. How ever, these que stions have been identified by the lecturer and deserve your attention to test your progress. Assessm ents You have two com pulso ry assignments that contribute 40% to your final year mark. The rem aining 60% of your year mark will be in the form of a venue-base d ex amination at the end of the semester. Please note that you will have to access myUnisa to ob tain your e xamination gu idelines. These will be posted und er the Additional Re sources tab of this site. For a full explanation of your assessm ent structure, please consult Tutorial Letter 101 or the FAQs tab . Please note that meaningful engagement will be required of you throughou t the semester. It is for this reason that you will need to access your module site at least on ce a week. 0.4 ASSIGNM ENTS You have two comp ulsory assignments for this module. Full details of your assignment can be found in Tutorial Letter 101 and yo u can also access the assignment questions in the Additional Re sources tab . For your conv enience, a description of the semester’s Assignments is also provided be low: Administrative information First semester • Assignment 1 closing date: See Tutorial Letter 101 • Assignment 2 closing date: See Tutorial Letter 101 • Contribu tion to year mark for the module: 40% Secon d semester • Assignment 1 closing date: See Tutorial Letter 101 • Assignment 2 closing date: See Tutorial Letter 101 • Contribu tion to year mark for the module: 40% Please note that different assignments are required for Semester 1 and Semester 2. Therefore, please make sure you comp lete the assignment for the correct semester. Incorrect submissions will not be assessed. GGH3704/1 5 LEARNING UNIT 0: Intro du ction and overview 0.5 EXAMI NATION In order to gain entry to the examination, you need to co mp lete and submit Assignment 1 on time. You will be required to write a two-hour examination pape r. During the two hours of the examination, you will have to answer four questions of 25 marks each. Main questions (25 marks each) can be fur ther divided into sub-questions related to the theme of the main question. The total marks for the pape r will be 100. Your examination contributes 60 % to your f inal mark. L E A R N IN G U N IT 1 U rban isatio n and U rba n G eography 1.1 INTRODUCTION “The fu ndamental task of the student of urban geography is to ma ke sense of the ways that towns and cities have changed and are changing, with particular reference to the differenc es between urban places and within them” (Knox & McCarthy, 2014:17). PORTO. Pho to: André C Horn Some thing to co nsider … The module GGH3704 De velop ment of Urban Space is presented by the Dep artment of Geography, bu t Geography is not the only discipline that studies urbanisation and cities. There are so many aspects and dimens ions associated with cities and urban life that not on e discipline can claim exclusive ownership of the study thereof. For examp le, no discipline is able to deal on its own with the planning, construction, intervention, management, econo my, politics and environment of the city, and with the welfare of the urban society and its different co mmunities. There are many spe cialists who are interested in and invo lved with cities, such as planners , architects, engineers, environmental scientists, development scientists, managerial specialists, historians, sociologists, ps ychologists, criminologists and ps ychologists (to name only a few) . Urban geo graphy do not claim any e xclusive space in the study of cities and urban society – it shares space with the other disciplines and therefore it shares foundations and theories with other disciplines while making a contribu tion throug h the central themes of space, place, territoriality and distance. To give two examp les: • In this Learning Unit yo u will encounter the term “social ecology” of cities which refers to ethnic, incom e, status and other social patterns in cities. Although such patterns haven always existed in cities, it was the “Chicago School” (a group 6 LEARNING UNIT 1: Urban isation and Urba n Geography of scholars, many from the discipline of sociology in the city of Chicago) that develope d the con cept of the “social ecology” of cities into a scientific paradigm from the 1920 s. Today, the ecological app roa ch particularly finds e xpression in Geo graphical Information System (G IS) ap plications. • In chapter 13 of the prescribe d textbook, you will read abou t “m ental map s”, a con cept referring to the “pe rception” of urban space. The idea of “m ental map s” became quite pop ular in geo graphic studies in the 1970s, bu t it was mainly the urban planner Kevin Lynch that opened th is door towards urban research. Nevertheless, the con cept of creating “mind map s” of the city is associated with the behavioural paradigm and is a spillover from the discipline of psychology. As you can see, the above illustrates the importance of taking note of or acknowledging the impa ct that other disciplines have on our field of study and of realising that other sources of information can greatly enrich your und erstanding of the f ield. In Learning Unit 1, we will first estab lish what a geo graphical focus on the study of the development of urban space is (1.3.1). As part of the same theme (1.3.1), several approa c hes to the study of urban spa ce are then presente d and we conclude Learning Unit 1 with a schem atic overview explaining the relations between urbanisation, triggers of change, resultant urban processes, ou tcom es and responses within the current comp lexity of globalisation (1.3.2). You will see throughou t the Learning Unit that there are several activities that you can comp lete. Comp leting these activities will enhance your und erstanding of the content. We also include som e a ctivities where we expect you to share your views with your fellow students. Please make use of these opportunities as we have found that students learn a lot from on e another. Finally, at the end of the Learning Unit there are som e Test yourself questions that have been designed to assist you in achieving the ou tcom es of this module and in helping you prep are for the examination. 1.2 LEARNIN G OUTCOM ES AND READIN G Learning outcom es Af ter working through the prescribe d material and reading for this Learning Unit, you sh ould be able to: • Explain yo ur understanding of the study of the development of urban spa ce from a geo graphical pe rspective • Explain the (main) approac hes applied by urban geographers in the study of cities • Explain the relationship between cause, condition and effect by linking urbanisation to its processes and ou tcom es within the context of time and loc ation Reading • In order to achieve the above ou tcom es yo u are required to read Chapter 1 Urbanization and Urban Geo graphy, and Ch apter 13 Urbanization, Urban Life, and Urban Spaces of your prescribe d textbo ok (Knox, PL & McCarthy, LM. 2014. An Introduction to Urban Geo graphy (Th ird Edition). Essex: Pearson). • NB: Please take note that you will have to consult the specified chapters in your prescribed bo ok to be able to complete this module successfully. The information contained in the Study Guide alon e will not be sufficient to pass the examination for this module. • For further enrichment you can also read: Pacion e, M. 2009. Urban Geo graphy. Londo n and New York: Rou tledge. (Ch apters 1 and 2 ). • You can also do further searches on the internet to enrich your knowledge. GGH3704/1 7 8 1.3 LEARNIN G CONTENT 1.3.1 The stu dy of urba n geo graphy The study of the development of urban space from a geo graphical pe rspective is characterised, firstly, by the emp hasis on spa ce, territoriality, distance and place, and, secondly, the different ap proa ches used over time to study the geo graphy of cities. Let us take a look at these two characteristics of the study of the development of urban space from a geo graphical pe rspective. • Space, territoriality, distance and place According to Pacion e (2009:3), “(u)rban geography s

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