Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
EDU10004: Theories of Teaching and Learning Assessment 2

Assessment Overview

EDU10004: Theories of Teaching and Learning Assessment 2: Essay Word limit: 2000 (+/- 10%) Weighting : 50% Due date : 9am AEST Friday 13 May 2016 (Week 8) Print Assessment overview This assessment activity is designed to engage you with an in-depth study of contemporary learning theories. You will need to outline various views and perspectives on learning and critically examine each one against current thinking around theories of teaching and learning. As part of this process, you will need to discuss various perspectives on learning and which ones have lost or gained support with the majority of people. Be sure to provide adequate evidence from the literature to support your suggestions and claims. Assessment details This is an individual activity involving two parts: Part 1 Create a Venn diagram to compare two different theories. Submit the diagram as part of the assessment and write about the key differences between these two theories (500 words). Part 2 Write an essay that examines the perspectives of learning in your chosen theories and clearly outline examples of the benefits and limitations of each theory. Use references and research to support your discussion. Additional resources This page on Referencing and Resources will help you learn about how to find and reference the resources you'll need for this essay. In the Study resources section, you will also find resources on writing an academic essay. Submission details This assessment will be submitted via Turnitin. See the Assessment 2 section of Blackboard for more detailed information. Assessment criteria Clear and concise description of various perspectives on learning. Clear and concise description of the two theories of learning and teaching, including the limitations and benefits. Presentation and discussion of ideas. Evidence from contemporary literature on theories of learning and teaching. References are in correct APA format. Your work will be assessed using the following marking guide: Criteria No Pass Pass 50-59% Credit 60-69% Distinction 70-79% High Distinction 80-100% Description of perspectives on learning (30%) Did not meet criterion. Basic explanation of learning. Good linkage between learning perspectives, supported by evidenced research. Excellent linkage between learning perspectives supported by strong examples and relevant literature. Outstanding linkage between learning perspectives, supported by clear and strong examples and relevant literature. Description and analysis of two theories, including limitations and benefits (30%) Did not meet criterion. Basic comparison made between theories, contrasting benefits and limitations. Good comparison made between theories, contrasting benefits and limitations, supported by evidenced research. Excellent comparison made between theories, contrasting benefits and limitations, supported by strong examples of relevant research. Outstanding comparison made between theories, contrasting benefits and limitations, supported by clear and strong examples and relevant literature. Presentation and discussion of ideas (25%) Did not meet criterion. Acceptable standard of presentation with clear communication. Good standard of presentation, with clear communication. High standard of presentation, excellent communication of ideas with a good connection to the learning materials. Excellent standard of presentation, outstanding communication of ideas and strong connection to the learning materials. Evidence from contemporary literature on theories of learning and teaching. References are in correct APA format. (15%) Did not meet criterion. Basic reference to relevant readings and resources. Significant reference to relevant readings and resources with substantial reference to the theory. Significant reference to relevant readings and resources with in-depth discussion of the theory beyond the prescribed texts. Outstanding reference to relevant readings and resources detailed and in-depth discussion of the theory beyond the prescribed texts. Differing opinions on learning Week 1 The word 'learn' has various definitions. Children do not just learn during a lesson plan or classroom activity – humans are learning all the time, in every context and stage of the life cycle. Learning is therefore a process of gaining knowledge, but also a product, such as learning skills like being able to water ski. There are many forms of learning and people may have a preference for learning in a particular way. In trying to understand the various theories of learning and their implications for education, it is helpful to realise that the term 'learning' means different things to different people and is used somewhat differently in different theories. As theories of learning evolved over the past half-century, definitions of learning shifted from changes that occur in the mind or behaviour of an individual, to changes in participation in ongoing activities with other individuals, to changes in a person's identity within a group (e.g. a change from being a follower to being a leader). However, most definitions of learning include: a change in an individual's knowledge ability to perform a skill participation in an activity with other individuals. Cognitive development Cognitive development (2013), <> A learning theory offers a description of how learning occurs, and this may include: memorisation being able to pay attention acquiring facts or procedures understanding reality making sense of the world and abstracting meaning how someone feels about learning what the motivating factors are whether learning takes place in isolation or with others thinking creatively and development of new ideas understanding reality in differing ways. Some theorists attempt to group learning according to 'levels', which attempt to label the type of learning according to the capabilities a learner demonstrates following the lesson or learning activity. The image above provides an overview of this levelled approach. Learning is one of the most important activities in which humans engage. It is at the very core of the educational process, although most of what people learn occurs outside of school. For thousands of years, philosophers and psychologists have sought to understand the nature of learning, how it occurs, and how one person can influence the learning of another person through teaching and similar endeavours. Churchill et al. (2013) remind us that 'learning is an ambiguous concept' (p. 107), and therefore difficult to define. Lenz Taguchi (2010) highlights the need to embrace the messy complexities of learning. The more we seem to know about the complexity of learning, children's diverse strategies and multiple theories of knowledge, the more we seek to impose learning strategies and curriculum goals that reduce complexities and diversities of learning and knowing. Lenz Taguchi (2010, p. 117) Executive functioning Executive functioning is described as a capacity of thinking and learning that is 'overarching; that is, it controls all thinking processes' (Whittington, 2012). Executive functioning takes into account this following: Children are able to hold in their head several ideas. Children can shut out other activities and noise and keep concentrating. Children are able to attend to what is needed to complete an activity. Children are able to move smoothly from one activity to another as needed. Executive functioning is a vital aspect of learning, and teachers who are aware of these capacities are able to provide suitable learning environments and pedagogy. It also helps with understandings about how some children are still developing these skills and trying to manage their emotions and level of attention. Sustained shared thinking through support, scaffolding and conversations helps to develop executive functioning and this is explored in one of the readings this week. Readings Week 2 What is theory? Theory: a set of ideas or principles used to guide practice, which are sufficiently coherent that they could if necessary be made explicit in a form which was open to challenge. Dr Chris Beckett (2006, p. 39) A theory can be described as a combination of different factors or variables woven together in an effort to explain whatever the theory is about – it is a system of coherent ideas. Theories of development are much more specific than paradigms or world views. For example, someone may have a theory about how dogs should be trained but unless there is some evidence that has taken place over time and been tested, it is more an informal idea about dog training than a formal theory. A formal theory therefore deals with change over time, and is usually concerned with three things: It should describe changes over time within an area or several areas of development. It should describe and explain changes among areas of development. It should be peer reviewed and/or tested in some way by experts in the field. When is a theory not a theory? The term theory is confusing because it is used in several different ways. For example, people may talk about Montessori theory when in fact Maria Montessori did not develop a theory but rather an approach to teaching and learning. Why is it not a theory? Beckett (2005) tries to describe theory, acknowledging that is hard to define and categorise, as demonstrated in the following examples: 'Harriet says that John isn't interested in her but my theory is that he's playing hard to get'. 'In theory this ought to work but I don't know whether it will work in practice'. Personal theories, described in the examples above, highlight working or informal theory based on schemas, concepts or experience. These ways of thinking can be useful, especially if critical reflection is used to think through and then rethink ideas. However, sometimes these ideas in relation to teaching and learning are unchallenged and not grounded in formal theoretical understandings. They may also perpetuate the thinking or culture of the time and never challenge issues such as race, gender, discrimination and bias. Formal theories can include those from science, sociology, psychology and education which have been described in detail in published form. They are peer reviewed by experts within the field, and therefore have academic rigour and a level of testing. Einstein's theory of relativity is a scientific theory. In the 'hard' sciences, the word 'theory' is used in a very specific sense. It means not only a system of ideas, but a system of ideas which is testable. Einstein's theory can be tested by using it to make precise predictions about the way that physical objects will behave in certain situations and by seeing whether the predictions are accurate. Theories in the social sciences like education are also formal theories that to some extent are testable against the evidence, but their predictions rarely achieve anything like the same degree of precision as theories in the hard sciences, so that it is a much more debatable and contestable matter as to whether a theory is supported by the evidence or not. This is not because social scientists are less clever than physicists, but because the social sphere is vastly more complex than the physical one. For one thing there are far more variables to take into account. (Even the physical sciences cannot make precise predictions when there are many variables: we all know from experience, for instance, that science cannot be relied upon to offer precise predictions of the weather even only a single day ahead.) For another thing many of the phenomena under study in the social sciences are not directly observable (as are, say, planets) but are things that exist in the human mind and in human culture. As a result they are: much harder to precisely define. Suppose, for instance, you were going to do a piece of research on 'aggressive behaviour' and wanted to compare your findings with other research on the same thing. How confident could you be that what you meant by 'aggressive behaviour' was precisely the same as what other researchers meant? often contentious and debatable. For example, views differ on what constitutes 'child abuse', as public debate on smacking indicates. changing over time and/or vary from one cultural context to another. For example, ideas about what, precisely, is meant by 'marriage' are not the same now as they were 100 years ago and are not the same in the UK as they are in, say, Pakistan. Beckett (2006) Other useful definitions Paradigms and perspectives are ways of looking at the world or issues with a particular focus such as environmental awareness, a sense of fairness or the belief that creativity is one of the most important ways that children learn. Approaches to education can include a single or multiple perspectives, such as the early childhood teachings from Reggio Emilia in Italy. A philosophy explains what we do and is 'another word for beliefs, mission or ideology' (Blaise, 2011, p. 107). For example, Rudolph Steiner has a philosophy about life called anthroposophy, which includes aspects of education. Theories of teaching and learning No one theory has proved adequate to describe and explain learning or development. Numerous theories of development have influenced educational practices during the 20th century. Different theories are based on different assumptions, and are appropriate for explaining some learning situations but not others. Theories of learning can inform teaching and the use of different instructional resources including technology, but ultimately the learning activities in which the student actually engages (mental, physical, and social) determine what a student learns in the classroom. Classroom learning involves social, emotional, and participatory factors in addition to cognitive ones, and theories of learning need to take these factors into account. Foundation and contemporary theories The foundation theories and philosophies of education often include those from the founding fathers and mothers of education. Note the dominance of these from Europe and North America, with very few theories and philosophies from women. The reading this week from Edwards (2009) will discuss this phenomenon in more detail. The following timeline offers a summary of some of these ideas, many that still resonate in education teaching today (Gray & MacBlain, 2012, p. 2). You can click on the timeline to watch short videos associated with each theorist and their impact on education. Thinking theoretically (Week 3) Sometimes theories can be thought of as irrelevant and written long ago, by dead white men. Good teachers, however, understand the relevance of theories in supporting understanding about teaching and learning and the opportunity they provide to challenge thinking and navigate teaching practice in different directions. A useful way to engage with different theoretical perspectives is to consider a given event of children's learning and 'read it' through the lenses of different theoretical perspectives. The following questions will help to choose from a range of different theoretical perspectives, in order to discover which approach (or aspects of approaches) suit or match your own informed convictions about child development and learning. What role do you see a given theory playing in your work, and/or what you need a theory to do? What do you wish to learn about children? How do you want to see children – your image of the child? How might different theories help us 'see' and experience children differently? How might different theoretical perspectives enable us to 'see' children who don't fit into the 'norm', differently – and how might this benefit them? How might using a range of different theoretical perspectives enable you to 'assess' children's development and learning in ways that capture their best capacities, skills and agency, rather than merely to satisfy an external demand for data? Engaging with theoretical perspectives Eclecticism refers to the practice of 'mixing and matching' ideas from a variety of different sources. Many teachers practise this approach, but many do this subconsciously and may not always be aware of the sources they are drawing from. It is important to be clear what your theories are, whether those theories are purely informal, or are derived from formal theories, or are a mixture of the two. This clarity adds credibility to your teaching practice, and illustrates that what seems a good idea from one perspective can be a bad idea from another. For example, it may occasionally be a good idea to reward a child (behaviourism) but if the child relies on rewards to achieve a high level of motivation this will mean they are always reliant on someone else (extrinsic motivation) for their outcomes and sense of achievement. This is one reason why critical reflection is a useful way of thinking through ideas and actions and to be able to spell it out in a form that is open to challenge, so as to allow debate. Embracing complexity The world in the 21st century is complex, diverse and constantly changing, and this unit embraces a multiple-theoretical approach with the knowledge that there is no one right way of theorising about teaching and learning. This is not always easy as there is not one prescribed way of learning, not one clear 'right' way of teaching and not one clear 'truth'. Lenz Taguchi (2010) states that this means we need to turn away or minimise teaching as a technical practice with a rigid focus on the classroom or environment, lessons, timetables and rigid routines that tend to normalise learning and behaviour. Instead the idea is to embrace new perspectives and theories without the need to throw out the old ideas and leaving room for experimentation, courageous and creative ideas. Learning about theories can be difficult and frustrating as our brains try to take on new ideas as we align these with old ideas and experiences. Some people really enjoy thinking in a more philosophical way, and others find it really challenging. Which one are you? Or do you have another reaction to theory and philosophy? It is important to consider theories in a number of ways: There are multiple ways of looking at an issue and one theory or many can be used. It is important to acknowledge complexity – these are difficult ideas, and trying to find simple explanations weakens the theory and the purpose of theory. Theories are about relationships – between ideas, thinking and concepts. Some theories may not be as practical as others and they are used to break up the status quo and shift traditional ways of thinking and being. Your perspective about a theory may be affected by whether you are using it to research a question or problem or trying to gain a better understanding of the theory or theorist. Following are several theories that can help you to acknowledge and appreciate complex and multiple ways of thinking. Piaget Bronfenbrenner's systems theory Systems theory Deleuze and Guattari's philosophy of rhizomatic thinking Linking theories, research and practice Last week we established that an essential part of theory is that it is validated through research studies where researchers test and critique the ideas of the theory. For example, Piaget's ideas about child development have been challenged in research studies that have shown that he underestimated children's abilities. An example of his tendency to underestimate is his view on children's egocentrism: he believed and tested that children under seven years of age were not able to see the viewpoint of another person. This theory will be discussed in more depth in Week 6. There is an interconnection between research, theory and practice. Research studies are also extended by looking at the research topic through a particular theoretical framework. An example of this will be highlighted in Week 4, where Prasanna Srinivison demonstrates how she used seven different theories in her PhD study to explain how children develop cultural identity. This week, we continue to think about the practice of teaching and extend this through examining some of the educational approaches that have influenced education systems. By the end of the week, you will be able to: recognise that personal values and beliefs influence your practical theory and consider how these theories are progressed in a teaching career understand the role of research in developing theoretical understandings that link with practice compare two educational approaches consider the impacts of theories of education on teaching practices and environments. Related learning outcomes (Week 4) The learning outcomes you'll cover this week are: Relate and reflect upon personal beliefs about learning and teaching to contemporary theories and how this impacts on practice. Identify and predict factors that contribute to effective learning environments. Theory He who loves practice without theory is like the sailor who boards ship without a rudder and compass and never knows where he may be cast. Leonardo da Vinci (cited in Blaise 2011, p. 105) Education approaches The relationship between theory and practice is often difficult to determine, but schools and educational practices are far more likely to be base practice on philosophical beliefs than on empirical studies or theoretical understandings of learning. Education settings are established according to different community and cultural beliefs that vary across cultural and geographical locations and therefore differ in their beliefs about teaching and learning. These philosophical and theoretical differences have endured for centuries. For example, the 'factory model' of schooling is based on production and management procedures successful during the industrial revolution. It stands in sharp contrast to the progressive voices of Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) and John Dewey, who advocated discovery, social reform, and freedom as the appropriate means of education. Both perspectives are clearly evident in modern-day discussions of education and instructional practices. There are many contemporary educational approaches that have influenced education systems and although this unit will not explore all of these, it is worth looking at how these have appeared in the 20th century, who the people are who developed these ideas and how these have influenced all aspects of education from early childhood to adult education. The terminology of these approaches and the described practices are evident in teaching practice, and it is useful to know from whence this body of knowledge comes. Readings There is only one reading this week. In Teachers' theory making, Blaise (2011) explores how contemporary theories can guide teachers' practices. This reading provides a summary of some of the key theories that will support your understanding as we explore these in more detail in subsequent weeks. Blaise's reflections at the end of this chapter mirror the approach taken in this unit of multidirectional, diverse and complex theories. She also acknowledges that many texts for preservice teachers do not include postmodern perspectives because there is a feeling they may be too complex for novice learners. However, she goes on to say that we live in a postmodern, global and diverse world, and these are the theories that help us to understand it. Once you've completed the reading, you can look at another interactive timeline, which explores different education approaches from the late 19th century onward. By the end of the week, you will be able to: understand the key ideas and theorists who have researched learning from a behaviourism perspective recognise the main characteristics that distinguish classical conditioning from operant conditioning describe the benefits and limitations of behaviourism describe the difference between behaviourism and social learning theory. Related learning outcomes The learning outcomes you'll cover this week are: Describe what is meant by learning theories and articulate their benefits and limitations. Describe and compare different learning perspectives and relate them to contemporary theories of learning. Theory From this point in the unit onward, as the theories explored become more complex, we've provided a table summarising the various perspectives. As we explore behaviourism this week, we will consider the theory that children's behaviours are shaped by environmental conditions and systematic reinforcements. Behaviourism Concept map for Week 5: Behavioural views Organisational table for Week 5: Behaviourism Application of behavioural theories to practice Domains of development Learning about child development involves understanding new terms and complex concepts and theories. However, at this stage in your studies you are expected to have an 'introductory knowledge'. It will be helpful that you have an understanding of each domain of development typically referred to as social, cognitive, language, emotional and physical development. Each domain of development is dependent on, and influences, all other domains of development. It is also important to understand that development does not occur in isolation, but in the context of the child's family and culture, which is referred to as the 'social environment'. Many of the units in your course will explore developmental theories in more depth. Each domain of development is important in its own right, and influences and impacts upon the other domains of development. Developing an understanding Rather than giving you a vast list of key concepts that underpin developmental theory, this week you will distil the key concepts from the information and readings provided. In your groups, you will discuss the commonalities and threads that run between and link these theories. The theories provided below are not presented in any particular order of either preference or prevalence; they have, however, been selected for their relevance to the early childhood educator. Maturational perspective Attachment theory and other ideas Erikson and psychosocial development Piaget's developmental perspective Concept map for Week 6: Developmental perspectives Organisational table for Week 6: Developmental perspectives

sales chat
sales chat