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How to Cite a PDF As Per Different Referencing Styles?
If you are writing an academic paper, you cannot avoid citing a PDF, especially if you are scouring through the Internet. However, most students do not know how to cite a PDF, which is why they cannot cite an important source or leave the source un-cited. In this blog, you will get to know how to cite a PDF in APA or MLA.
How to Cite a PDF in APA Citation Style?
Do you wish to cite a PDF in your reference list in APA? But you are not aware of APA citation for PDF? Do not break a sweat. For a PDF, setting up the citation in your works cited, references or bibliography is as simple as citing an e-book or other electronic document.
Furthermore, you have to know certain elements which are applicable for all types of sources such as:
- Author name(s)
- Title of the work
- Date of the work
- URL or DOI
- Medium (optional)
So, if you want to cite a PDF in APA 6, you have to abide by the template specified below.
FORMAT: The Last name of the author, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of PDF [PDF]. Name of Publisher. URL
It is a common spectacle for the PDF files to have no listed publisher. If the name of the publisher cannot be found, then it can be dropped from the reference structure altogether.
EXAMPLE: Alan, J. B. (2019). Lifestyle and habits [PDF File]. Medicine Development Around the World 14(7). Retrieved from www.ajqgh.org
Now, in case of multiple authors, you have to include all the names with an ampersand (&) before the last author. However, this is applicable only if there are seven or fewer authors.
Turing, J.B., & Doe, M.L.
For PDFs with more than seven authors, you have to include no more than seven authors with an ellipsis before the final author.
Turing, J.B., Doe M.L., Harry, K.L., Ann, O.P., Roberts, I.L., Hastings, F.D.,……Louisa, K.O.
In the following section, we will take a look at how to cite a PDF in MLA.
How to Cite a PDF in MLA?
You must remember that the PDF is not really a source itself, but rather a file type. It is only a way of displaying the source. For instance, if the source you wish to cite is a PDF of a magazine, just cite the source as you would a magazine.
In the case of MLA citation, you can change the medium description to "PDF file." Interestingly, MLA 8 also no longer requires an access date for updated articles.
FORMAT: Surname of the author, First name and initials of the author, Title of PDF, Place of Publication, Year of Publication, URL
EXAMPLE: Jones, Marcus, A. How to Write a Book Review. XYZ College, 2019.
When it comes to multiple authors, MLA PDF Citation example would be:
- Two authors: Schultz, Warner A., and Henry Jackson
- More than two authors: Schultz, Warner A., et al.
If you are unable to grasp the concept, it is wise if you take the help of a PDF citation generator found online.
How to Cite a PDF in Chicago/Turabian?
In this section, we will take a look at how to cite a PDF in Chicago/Turabian. When you cite a PDF in Chicago or Turabian style, you should add the PDF identifier after the title of document or book. In addition to this, the Chicago style requires you to add https://doi.org/ to DOIs.
It is important that you keep certain rules and regulations in mind when it comes to the Chicago citation style.
- Every entry in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.
- The name of the author is inverted in the bibliography, placing the last name first and separating the last name and first name with a comma.
- All the major elements in the citation are separated by periods.
Hence, the template is:
Author Surname, Author Forename. Year Published. Title. PDF. City: Publisher. http://Website URL.
DAFGD 2019 Annual Report. 2018. PDF. 1st ed.
In the next section, we will take a look at how to cite a PDF as per Harvard conventions.
How to Cite a PDF in Harvard?
So far, we have seen MLA, Chicago and APA style PDF citation example. Now, it's time we take a look at another predominantly used citation style.
The format that you have to abide by is
Author Surname, Author Initial. (Year Published). Title. ed. [ebook] City: Publisher, p.Pages Used. Available at: http://Website URL [Accessed Date Accessed].
Since, PDF is not a source, rather a representation, we will take the name of the original source, in this case, an e-book.
Hence, an example would look like:
Brown, C. (2019). Classification of the types of delivery from Cardiotocographic signals using Machine Learning 1st ed. [ebook] p.1.
Hopefully, now you have an insight into the citation of PDF in an academic paper. In case, you have any confusion, you can always refer to the information mentioned here. Furthermore, you can always take the help of the citation generators. With a little practice, you will have no trouble in grasping the concept.
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