Water Supply System Planning for Newly Acquired Sub-Counties in City Q
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a) Municipality Q which recently attained city status acquired 4 additional sub counties within the city. With this new development, at least 5000 inhabitants who were previously part of the peri urban areas of these Sub counties are now part of the city. Two of the previous sub counties form Division A in the newly formed city and could benefit from River X that crosses at the boundary between two of the previous sub counties. For both of the Sub-counties, significant activity is carried out along River X with one of the Sub-counties carrying out agriculture mostly growing of rice in significant quantities accounting for over 70% of the rice supply in the entire region and neighboring areas. Meanwhile, the other Sub-county bordering River X is vested in fishing and farmers in the area venturing in to commercial fish farming where ponds are located at times near the River. Atleast 8 commercial farmers providing close 800kg of fish to the city market per day in given seasons are from the area and also benefit from proximity to River X. At preliminary level, it is envisioned that River X could be a source of water for these fast-urbanizing areas within City Q. Giving a specific context to support information availed, examples where applicable and justification, describe how you would plan a water supply system to ensure extension of water to the two additional sub counties which are now part of the city.(25 marks)
b) Citing examples where possible, discuss some of the constraints you anticipate to encounter when planning the water supply system for the additional sub-counties. (10 marks).
a) Providing for distribution of water and its transmission to a given location during design of water supply systems is considered one the most capital-intensive stages with considerable investment accounting for more than 65 %. Due to such investment requirements, most water utilities ensure that most of the equipment, parts etc. used in the water transmission and distribution line are standardized. Citing the types of materials often used in Ugandan water systems and examples of water supply systems installed, discuss the pros and cons associated with using standardized material/equipment especially during transmission and distribution of water and suggest what lessons the Government of Uganda can learn from examples mentioned. (15 marks)
b) With supporting schematic illustration, design a water transmission and distribution system for a community which is sectioned into 5 categories including the slums, housing estates, upscale mansions and institutional/commercial section. Giving baseline information for the community, describe the major components of the network designed explaining why the various design considerations were taken into account. (10 marks)
c) Using the baseline and context specific information given in (b) above and clearly stating any other assumptions made, compute the terminal pressure for each of the sections considered in your schematic layout given that firefighting demand of 20 /hr and minimum pressure requirement of 10 m.w.c. (above ground level) is considered. Hint (determine peak factor and consider frictional losses in the distribution line). (15 marks)
a) District X located in the Northern part of the country is bordering another country. Over the last decade, the unrest in the boarding country has resulted in a number of refugees crossing over to District X and settling in camps designated by the government for refugees. The number in the refugee camp have grown extensively over time and this has put a strain on the local communities within District X especially with regard to obtaining basic needs such as water and fuel for cooking which is mostly firewood or charcoal. There has been uproar in villages neighboring refugee camp that the few water source points initially used by the locals have been overwhelmed by the refugees with some of the locals citing spread of diarrheal diseases as a result of poor hygiene practices adopted. Following continuousdiscussions amongst local leaders, representatives of the refugee communities and an NGO interested in supporting local initiatives in District X, it was decided that public stand pipe systems would be put in place to serve both the refugee and local communities. Water would be abstracted from a nearby lake, treated and transported/distributed to both communities consisting of atleast 1000 refugees in two camps and 1500 local community members living in the three villages neighboring the refugee camp and involved in various activities ranging from fishing, fabrication businesses, agriculture and charcoal production. From preliminary discussions amongst the various stakeholders, it is estimated that atleast 20 public stand pipes would be installed in addition to rehabilitating some of the existing springs.
Moreover, as one of the measures of ensuring sustainable livelihoods while restoring the eco-system, the stakeholders asserted that a massive campaign to replant trees in the area, allocating at least 100 acres for the activity will be part of the development Making own assumptions where necessary, discuss how you would carry out an environment and social impact assessment for the proposed water supply system, giving a summary for each of the relevant chapters/sections of study. (25marks)