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4 Questions and Answers on Biopsychosocial Framework, Insomnia, Face Masks, and Cardiovascular Disea

Question 1: Biopsychosocial Framework and Smoking Cessation

Question 1
Noah is a 45-year-old father who, on his own volition, enrolled in a single 45-minute smoking cessation session. He used to work in a bank as a senior manager, but was retrenched four months ago. He has been smoking for the past 20 years and smokes at least 15 cigarettes a day. With reference to the biopsychosocial framework, address the following questions.
a) Describe the biological aspects that Noah is currently undergoing and what he may potentially face when he attempts to quit. (10 marks)
b) Describe the psychological issues that Noah may be going through, particularly the challenges he may face during his smoking cessation journey. (10 marks)
c) Explain the social issues that may impact Noah as a result of quitting smoking. (10 marks)
d) Develop a single-session intervention (approximately 45-minutes) to address the psychological and social issues that Noah may face in relation to the points raised in answers 1(b) and 1(c). (10 marks)
Section B (Total 60 marks)
Answer TWO questions in this section.
Question 2
Some 15.3% of Singaporeans suffer from insomnia, according to the Singapore General Hospital webpage on insomnia. This is a condition where sufferers have difficulty falling asleep, wake up frequently in the middle of the night, do not feel refreshed in the morning, or all three. The bouts of insomnia should occur at least three times a week for at least three months. Singapore is one of the most sleepless countries in the world. It is the third most sleepless country, behind Japan at 6 hours and 47 minutes and India at 7 hours and 1 minute.
Adapted from The Straits Times (28 September 2019). There is a cure for insomnia. It is not a pill.
Retrieved from 28/9/2019
a) Explain the health issues that a person may encounter if he or she does not get enough sleep. (15 marks)
b) Insomnia in adolescence requires the identification of predisposing factors, such as how the adolescent responds to stress, potential genetic influences, as well as perpetuating factors that keep insomnia going (Owens, 2014). Describe how stress can affect sleep and identify
potential conditions that may influence an adolescent in Singapore from getting a good night’s sleep. (15 marks)
Question 3
a) The haze situations in Singapore have resulted in face masks being sold out in various pharmacies within two days. However, there are many people who refuse to wear face masks, despite the poor and unhealthy air quality. Using the theory of planned behaviour, examine why people refuse to wear face masks in spite of the worsening haze situation.(20 marks)
b) Appraise the effectiveness of using the theory of planned behaviour in influencing people to wear face masks during hazy weather conditions. (10 marks)
Question 4
SINGAPORE − Asia-Pacific countries should move away from an acute care model to a preventive one in order to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, a new report says. The Healthy Hearts, Healthy Ageing Asia Pacific Report also recommends better access to innovative therapies and technologies, as well as the need for data to understand the current burden of disease and plan for the future. The report noted that Singapore has been embracing the recommended step-down care model, where patients can leave the main hospitals to recuperate in facilities once they have been stabilised after a heart attack or stroke.
Adapted from The Straits Times (28 June 2019). Focus on preventive care to improve heart health: Report. Retrieved from 28/9/2019
a) The acute phase of coronary heart disease is considered passed once the patient has undergone the initial treatment of coronary artery bypass graft. Once this phase has passed, the patient will have to undergo the prevent phase of treatment to prevent the recurrence of the disease.
Applying your understanding of education and intervention programmes, recommend programmes that can help cardiovascular patients in the prevent phase to prevent the recurrence of coronary heart disease. Support your recommendations with relevant information from the literature. (15 marks)
b) Describe the issues of social support that a cardiovascular patient may face in the aftermath of his or her initial acute treatment. (15 marks)

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