Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
Respiratory Model and Animal Organ Anatomy

What was most interesting to you concerning this demonstration

Exercise 1:  Respiratory Model and Animal Organ Anatomy Background:
The human body requires oxygen gas to produce ATP in the mitochondria during a process called cellular respiration.  The human body can only acquire oxygen gas via the respiratory system.  The respiratory also disposes majority of the carbon dioxide that is generated as a waste product during the synthesis of ATP. 
The respiratory system is divided into the upper and lower respiratory tracts.  The upper respiratory tract includes the external nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, paranasal sinuses and the larynx.  The lower respiratory tract includes the trachea, bronchial tree and the alveoli.  The bronchial tree and alveoli are inside the lungs.
The lungs are in the thoracic cavity.  Each lung sits lateral to the heart and superior to the diaphragm.  The ribs surround the lungs on the anterior, posterior and lateral sides.  Blood vessels of the pulmonary circuit and the primary bronchus enter (or leave) the lung at a small indentation called the hilum.   The lungs are housed in a serous membrane called the pleura.  The pleura is an epithelial tissue membrane that secretes a fluid called serous, designed to reduce friction for when the lungs.

Write a few sentences which summarize what was most interesting to you concerning this demonstration. 
2.List some of the physical characteristics of lung tissue. How do these characteristics assist in ventilation and respiration (exchange of gases)?
3.Boyle’s Law states that in an environment where the temperature is constant, the pressure of a gas is inversely related to its volume.  When reviewing the cow pluck demonstration from the video link above, it is interesting to note the how much lung expansion is possible. Relating to Boyle’s  Law, describe what happens to the pressure inside the lungs before and after they were fully inflated.

4.Ventilation is the mechanical process of bringing air into and out of the lungs. List the skeletal and muscular structures that are involved in normal ventilation. List the action of the muscles involved in the normal ventilation process.  Also list the additional/accessory muscular structures involved in deep or heavy breathing (forced inspiration).

5.What effect do the muscles listed in question 3 have on thoracic volume?
Primary lung disorders are commonly categorized in two ways:  restrictive diseases and obstructive diseases.  Restrictive diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis, are characterized by  a loss of elasticity (decreased compliance) of the lung tissue.  These type of diseases make it incredibly difficult for a patient  to inspire air.  IRV, IC, VC and TLC decrease in restrictive lung diseases.
Obstructive disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, are characterized by increased airway resistance caused by narrowing of the bronchioles, increased mucus secretion or an obstructing tumor.  Obstructive lung diseases make it incredibly difficult to expire air.  This is because the increased pulmonary pressure during expiration naturally tends to shrink the diameter of the bronchioles which is exacerbated in obstructive lung disease and may cause bronchioles to collapse, trapping oxygen poor air in distal respiratory passages. Patients obstructive lung disease can be identified through spirometry as ERV and VC decreases and RV and FRC increase.
Asthma, a reversible type of obstructive lung disease is quite complex.  The changes in the respiratory structures are caused by allergens, small particles that stimulate a hypersensitivity response in the body. 
6.Write a brief description of the changes in the lungs/air passages learned from the video.
7.What changes in the thoracic musculature would you expect over time in a patient who has asthma?
8.Asthmatics have decreased ERV and vital capacity. Additionally, residual volume and FRC may be increased.  How might asthma impact other respiratory volumes and capacities?
9.An elderly male (assume 68 years) patient has come to the clinic for a spirometry test. Following the test, the patient had the following respiratory volume: TV = 500mL, ERV = 300mL and IRV = 1900mL.
Calculate the patients VC
Is the VC normal for a male patient?
If VC is not normal, is it more consistent with obstructive lung disease or restrictive lung disease? Which volumes or capacities supports your answer?
10.Mary Jane has emphysema which results in the loss of elastic recoil of the lung tissue. Would this disease make inspiration or expiration difficult for Mary Jane?  Explain your answer in detail.

sales chat
sales chat