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Important Concepts in Statistics

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**Task:**

Question 1

The "Goodness of Fit or Test for Independence" document in Module 6 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 1 through 4.

If a questions asks if there is a preference (or significant preference), and there is just ONE categorical variable, this is our clue that we need to perform a:

Chi-square Goodness of Fit test

Chi-square Best Fit test

Chi-square Test for Independence

Chi-square Test for Dependence

Question 2

The "Goodness of Fit or Test for Independence" document in Module 6 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 1 through 4.

If a questions asks if there is a relationship between two categorical variables, or asks if the categorical variables are related, this is our clue that we need to perform a:

Chi-square Goodness of Fit test

Chi-square Best Fit test

Chi-square Test for Independence

Chi-square Test for Dependence

Question 3

The "Goodness of Fit or Test for Independence" document in Module 6 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 1 through 4.

With the Goodness of Fit test, the formula to calculate the Expected frequencies (otherwise called Expected values) is as follows:

Divide the total number of people by the total number of cells

Divide the total number of cells by the total number of people

Row Total x Column Total / n

Question 4

The "Goodness of Fit or Test for Independence" document in Module 6 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 1 through 4.

With the Test for Independence, the formula to calculate the Expected frequencies (otherwise called Expected values) is as follows:

Divide the total number of people by the total number of cells

Divide the total number of cells by the total number of people

Row Total x Column Total / n

uestion 5

The "Addition Rule vs. Multiplication Rule" document in Module 7 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8.

When calculating probabilities, we use the Addition Rule when we are calculating the probability of:

the joint or successive occurrence of multiple events

when we are only sampling with replacement

either one event or another event occurring

when we are only sampling without replacement

Question 6

The "Addition Rule vs. Multiplication Rule" document in Module 7 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8.

When calculating probabilities, we use the Multiplication Rule when we are calculating the probability of:

joint or successive occurrences of multiple events

when we are only sampling with replacement

either one event or another event occurring

when we are only sampling without replacement

Question 7

The "Addition Rule vs. Multiplication Rule" document in Module 7 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8.

The probability of rolling EITHER a 1 or a 6 in one die toss

(1/6 + 1/6) = .3300

(1/6 x 1/6) = .0278

Question 8

The "Addition Rule vs. Multiplication Rule" document in Module 7 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8.

Suppose you sample 2 people from a population of 110 people (with 50 men and 60 women), with replacement. What is the probability that you will draw a woman on the first sample and a woman on the second sample?

60/110 + 60/110 = 1.0909

60/110 * 60/110 = .2976

60/110 + 59/110 = 1.082

60/110 * 59/109 = .2953

Question 9

The "Permutation or Combination" document in Module 8 of Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 9, 10, 11, and 12.

If a different ordering of the same objects selected (represented by r) gives you something new, then this represents a:

Combination

Order of Representation

Permutation

Question 10

The "Permutation or Combination" document in Module 8 of Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 9, 10, 11, and 12.

A person calls Pizza Hut and places an order for a pepperoni, sausage, and green pepper pizza. The very next caller places an order for a green pepper, sausage, and pepperoni pizza. These pizzas represent a:

Permutation

Order of Representation

Combination

Question 11

The "Permutation or Combination" document in Module 8 of Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 9, 10, 11, and 12.

In the formula for a Permutation, "r" represents:

the number of objects being selected, in no particular order

the order of the objects

the number of subjects being sampled

the number of subjects being sampled, minus 1

Question 12

The "Permutation or Combination" document in Module 8 of Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 9, 10, 11, and 12.

In the formula for a Combination, "r" represents:

the number of objects being selected, in no particular order

the order of the objects

Question 13

The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 through 20.

The basic question underlying hypothesis testing is:

should the null hypothesis be rejected?

should the null hypothesis be retained?

could the relationship observed in the sample have occurred by chance?

is the null hypothesis more appropriate than the alternative hypothesis?

Question 14

The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.

If you know the population standard deviation, you should perform a:

correlation

t-test

regression

z-test

Question 15

The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.

If you don't know the population standard deviation, but you have the sample standard deviation, you should perform a:

correlation

t-test

regression

z-test

0

uestion 16

The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.

True or False? Alpha levels are always divided in half for two-tailed z-tests; use the halved alpha value to look up the critical z value in the z tables.

True

False

Question 17

The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.

True or False? Confidence intervals are always one-tailed, regardless of whether the original z-test or t-test was one-tailed or two-tailed.

True

False

Question 18

The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.

The null hypothesis is always stated in a manner that conveys:

that there is no difference between groups

that there is a difference between groups

that Group A improved more than Group B

that Group B improved more than Group A

Question 19

The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.

The alternative hypothesis is always stated in a manner that conveys:

that there is no difference between groups

that there is a difference between groups

that Group A decreased more than Group B

that Group B decreased more than Group A