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Important Concepts in Statistics

## Chi-Square Goodness of Fit

Question 1

The "Goodness of Fit or Test for Independence" document in Module 6 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 1 through 4.
If a questions asks if there is a preference (or significant preference), and there is just ONE categorical variable, this is our clue that we need to perform a:
Chi-square Goodness of Fit test
Chi-square Best Fit test
Chi-square Test for Independence
Chi-square Test for Dependence
Question 2
The "Goodness of Fit or Test for Independence" document in Module 6 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 1 through 4.
If a questions asks if there is a relationship between two categorical variables, or asks if the categorical variables are related, this is our clue that we need to perform a:
Chi-square Goodness of Fit test
Chi-square Best Fit test
Chi-square Test for Independence
Chi-square Test for Dependence
Question 3
The "Goodness of Fit or Test for Independence" document in Module 6 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 1 through 4.
With the Goodness of Fit test, the formula to calculate the Expected frequencies (otherwise called Expected values) is as follows:

Divide the total number of people by the total number of cells
Divide the total number of cells by the total number of people
Row Total x Column Total / n
Question 4
The "Goodness of Fit or Test for Independence" document in Module 6 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 1 through 4.
With the Test for Independence, the formula to calculate the Expected frequencies (otherwise called Expected values) is as follows:

Divide the total number of people by the total number of cells
Divide the total number of cells by the total number of people
Row Total x Column Total / n
uestion 5
The "Addition Rule vs. Multiplication Rule" document in Module 7 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8.

When calculating probabilities, we use the Addition Rule when we are calculating the probability of:

the joint or successive occurrence of multiple events
when we are only sampling with replacement
either one event or another event occurring
when we are only sampling without replacement
Question 6
The "Addition Rule vs. Multiplication Rule" document in Module 7 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8.
When calculating probabilities, we use the Multiplication Rule when we are calculating the probability of:

joint or successive occurrences of multiple events
when we are only sampling with replacement
either one event or another event occurring
when we are only sampling without replacement
Question 7
The "Addition Rule vs. Multiplication Rule" document in Module 7 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8.

The probability of rolling EITHER a 1 or a 6 in one die toss
(1/6 + 1/6) = .3300
(1/6 x 1/6) = .0278
Question 8
The "Addition Rule vs. Multiplication Rule" document in Module 7 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8.

Suppose you sample 2 people from a population of 110 people (with 50 men and 60 women), with replacement. What is the probability that you will draw a woman on the first sample and a woman on the second sample?
60/110 + 60/110 = 1.0909
60/110 * 60/110 = .2976
60/110 + 59/110 = 1.082
60/110 * 59/109 = .2953
Question 9
The "Permutation or Combination" document in Module 8 of Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 9, 10, 11, and 12.

If a different ordering of the same objects selected (represented by r) gives you something new, then this represents a:
Combination
Order of Representation
Permutation
Question 10
The "Permutation or Combination" document in Module 8 of Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 9, 10, 11, and 12.
A person calls Pizza Hut and places an order for a pepperoni, sausage, and green pepper pizza.  The very next caller places an order for a green pepper, sausage, and pepperoni pizza.  These pizzas represent a:
Permutation
Order of Representation
Combination
Question 11
The "Permutation or Combination" document in Module 8 of Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 9, 10, 11, and 12.
In the formula for a Permutation, "r" represents:
the number of objects being selected, in no particular order
the order of the objects
the number of subjects being sampled
the number of subjects being sampled, minus 1
Question 12
The "Permutation or Combination" document in Module 8 of Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 9, 10, 11, and 12.
In the formula for a Combination, "r" represents:
the number of objects being selected, in no particular order
the order of the objects
Question 13
The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 through 20.
The basic question underlying hypothesis testing is:
should the null hypothesis be rejected?
should the null hypothesis be retained?
could the relationship observed in the sample have occurred by chance?
is the null hypothesis more appropriate than the alternative hypothesis?
Question 14
The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.
If you know the population standard deviation, you should perform a:
correlation
t-test
regression
z-test
Question 15
The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.
If you don't know the population standard deviation, but you have the sample standard deviation, you should perform a:
correlation
t-test
regression
z-test

0
uestion 16
The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.

True or False?   Alpha levels are always divided in half for two-tailed z-tests; use the halved alpha value to look up the critical z value in the z tables.
True
False
Question 17
The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.

True or False?  Confidence intervals are always one-tailed, regardless of whether the original z-test or t-test was one-tailed or two-tailed.
True
False
Question 18
The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.
The null hypothesis is always stated in a manner that conveys:
that there is no difference between groups
that there is a difference between groups
that Group A improved more than Group B
that Group B improved more than Group A
Question 19
The "Getting Started in Module 9/10" document in Module 9/10 Instruction Materials will be helpful to you in answering Questions 13 - 20.
The alternative hypothesis is always stated in a manner that conveys:
that there is no difference between groups
that there is a difference between groups
that Group A decreased more than Group B
that Group B decreased more than Group A