Most indicators are based on surveys that ask for subjective experience. Such surveys may include perception-based questions.
The following corruption assessment approaches attempt to measure corruption quantitatively or qualitatively:
the Opacity Index specifically targets transparency and openness in government,
the Corruption Perception Index assesses public awareness and perceptions,
the State Capture Index measures the extent of undue influence of business interests, the Public Integrity Index and the Control of Corruption Index monitors good governance procedures and institutions.
In addition to that there are other business-related reports:
Investment Climate, Doing Business Report,
Question: Use the sources listed above to learn more about the corruption level in the U.S.
In the political sphere, corruption impedes democracy and the rule of law. Corruption may also result in reducing the interest of the public in political participation.
The economic outcome of corruption is a reduction of national wealth. Corruption is responsible for increased costs of goods and services and the funneling of public resources to rent-seeking activities.
In the social sphere, corruption leads to frustration and general apathy among the public result in a weak civil society. Corrupt practices also result in social inequality and a widened gap between the rich and poor, increasing poverty.
More sources on corruption and Economic Development: Library Economics.
World Bank, The Economics and Social Consequences of Corruption in Transition Countries.
Question: Discuss how corruption slows down economic growth.
IV. Corruption in the U.S.