BIO 295 Recommended for Biology
1. Explain the terms listed below
2. Describe the life cycle of a virus. Use illustration if you need to
3. Explain the main differences between enveloped and naked viruses
4. Describe the life cycle of protozoa and explain how it is related to the way these pathogens are transmitted
5. Match the fungal spores with the correct description.
Sporangiospores ____ A) Grows out small pores of the mother cell.
Conidiospores ____ B) Budding from a parent cell.
Arthrospores ____ C) Thickening of the hyphal cell at the tip of the hyphae
Chlamydospore ____ D) Forms by septate hyphae fragmentation
Blastospore ____ E) Typically develop at the tip of the hyphal cells
Porospore ____ F) Develop in a sac.
6. Which one is a characteristic of Archae?
A. Cell wall lacks peptidoglycan.
B. Lacks cell wall.
C. Have a large nucleus.
D. Uses glycolysis and TCA cycle to break down glucose.
7. What group(s) listed below have cell walls? Select all that applies
C. Gram-positive bacteria
8. Which statement(s) are correct
A. All bacteria have cell walls.
B. All fungi have chitin in their cell walls.
C. All algae have cellulose in their cell walls
D. All protozoans have protein in their cell walls
9. Which of the following characteristics do not occur in prokaryotic cells?
A Cellular organization
B Chloroplasts for photosynthesis
C Aerobic respiration
D Anaerobic respiration
E. A double layer nuclear membrane
10. Transformation of mammalian cells with viruses and obtaining mammalian cells harboring the virus is a method used to maintain the virus of interest. During this process what are the plaques observed?
A. Clear areas in a layer of cultured cells degenerated and lysed due to virus infection.
B. Stained areas in a cell culture indicating cells infected by a virus.
C. Virus colonies on agar.
D. Bacterial colonies on agar
11. What are the types of in vitro virus cultivation systems (Choose all that applies)
A. Animal cell culture
B. Bird embryos (eggs)
C. Using live animals
D. Special media made to grow viruses.
12. Which of the following is not true or related to bacterial capsule formation
A. Rigid and attached tightly to the cell wall
B. Loose and weakly associated with bacterial cell wall.
C. Capsule formation is associated with virulence of pathogenic bacteria
D. Capsule provides resistance to survive through harsh conditions
13. An antifungal cream advertises to chemically attack the fungal cells without harming the skin. The antifungal chemical most likely acts on which of the following?
B. Eukaryotic membranes
C. The nucleus
E. There is not enough information provided to answer this question.
14. A scientist is interested in genetically engineering a fungus to hinder its reproductive process so that it does not spread fast. Which process should be disrupted to hinder fungal reproduction?
A. Mycelium formation
B. Nutrient absorption
C. Septa formation
D. Spore formation
E. None of these
15. Kingdom fungi are
A. eukaryotic heterotrophs
B. prokaryotic heterotrophs
C. eukaryotic bacteria
D. prokaryotic bacteria
16. Fungal hyphae form a mesh of tissue that infiltrates food sources and absorbs nutrients. This tissue structure is called..
B. Fungal roots
E. None of these
17. The life cycle of most fungi is best described by which of the following statements? (3 points)
A Fungi are unique and have different mechanisms of reproduction
B Fungi only reproduce sexually
C Fungi have both sexual and asexual portions of their life cycle
D Fungi only reproduce asexually
E None of these
18. Find the wrong information about virus attachment and absorption to host cell (3 points).
A. The surface capsid proteins of naked viruses bind to a specific cell receptor on host cell.
B. For enveloped viruses, the spikes are responsible for binding to a specific cell receptor.
C. A cell lacking a receptor for a specific virus is not infected by that virus.
D. Animal viruses, such as HIV are highly specific and they can only infect particular cell types.
E. All of these are true.
19. Fungi cell membrane contains sterol and ergesterol. Ergesterol synthesizing enzymes are drug targets for fungal treatment
20. Ribosomal structures are different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
21. Periplasmic flagella is an internal flagellum found in bacteria called Spirochetes, a corkscrew-shaped bacteri
22. Peptidoglycan (PG) is a heteropolymer that consists of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptide fragments and makes up the cell wall of archae
23. Chlamydophilia pneumoniae belongs to Chlamydias and causes long infection, the most transmitted STD
24. Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci, a member of the division Ascomycetes is the most common opportunistic infection in persons with HIV.
25. What are hyphae and psedudohyphea?
26. Describe the two main ways by which viral nucleic acid is introduced into the host cells
27. Describe gram negative and gram positive cells walls
28. Differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
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