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Answers to Biology Questions

Explaining the Significance of Scientific Theory and Evolutionary Theories

Respond to these questions in your own words. You may use both your textbook and lecture slides to help you answer these questions. Make sure to answer ali parts of the question. Do not directly quote them:

1.You are talking to your friend who admits that he “Doesn't believe in evolution, because it's just a theory” and he challenges you to explain why he should change his mind. Explain the following to him:

2. The significance of a scientific theory and why it is accepted globally by scientists

-Include an explanation of what happens when new observations cannot be explained by existing theories and how this relates to the overall significance of a scientific theory

3. What the Theory of Evolution states and what it seeks to explain, as well as what the Modern Synthesis of Evolution explains and how it expands on the “definition” of evolution.

4. All of the types of evidence (broad categories) that support modern evolutionary theories

-Include specific examples where possible

5. What natural selection is and the impact it has on individuals in a population

6. What the Red Queen Hypothesis is and how the interactions among individuals described by it further drives evolutionary processes

7.  Why are the higher levels of the trophic pyramid naturally less populated  and have fewer individuals or species than lower levels of the trophic pyramid? What causes this to happen?

8. What is the difference between preservations utilitarian conservation, and environmentalism movements?

9. Define the different types of sexual selection and provide an example of each you do not have to be species-specific)

10. Can sexual selection have a negative impact on different sexes? Explain why or why not and provide an example (you do not have to be species-specific)

11. Define the different types of symbiotic relationships and provide an example of each

12. Explain the distribution of global terrestrial biomes as well as the distribution of unique temperature-specific marine biomes such as coral reefs and kelp forests. Be sure to include information about:

- The impact of solar radiation across the surface of the planet

- Atmospheric  convection

- Global wind patterns

- Oceanic currents

- Proximity to oceans and large bodies of water

- Unique [eatures or characteristics of each biome that “define them” and further separate them from other biomes (even on the same continental landmass or in close proximity to each other)

Types of Evidence Supporting Evolutionary Theories

13. Using all forms of evidence that support the theory of plate tectonics as well as known and observed tectonic and geological processes, explain why the distribution and shape of continents and oceans has changed through geologic time. Be sure to include:

-Definitions and descriptions of any mechanisms  mentioned

-Causes of observed processes

- Causes of observed evidence that further supports our knowledge of tectonic processes

- Siqni[icance of observations  to our understanding of the movements of lithospheric plates

14. What are morphological, physiological, and behavioral defenses that organisms have evolved to enhance their success and survival in predator-prey  interactions? (Hint: think about both predators and prey)

15. Why is it so important to life that solid water is less dense than liquid water?

16. Compare and contrast r-selected species with K-selected species. Be sure to include information about:

-Differences in population growth patterns

- Resource use and depletion as well as how it impacts overall population growth

- Differences in life history strategies

17. Describe policies, plans, and actions that aid species conservation and population recovery. Be sure to include information about:

-Classifications or "categories" of species in need of conservation

-Any national or international  policies that seek to aid in conservation efforts

-Any issues or limitations with implementing policies, plans, or actions to protect and conserve species and their populations

19. Describe the different types of limiting factors and provide an example of each

20. What are the issues associated with providing "blanket" protections and establishing large protected areas in order to preserve wild habitats and protect species?

21. What is vertical zonation in terrestrial environments  and what does it look like? Why does this pattern to occur?

22. What causes vertical zonation in coastal marine environments  like mangals, salt marshes, and intertidal zones?

23. Define the different types of competition

24. What is competitive exclusion and resource partitioning?

25. What happens as a result of long-term species-wide (not on an individual eve  competitive processes?

26. What process occurs at mid-ocean ridges?

27. Provide an example of a mid-ocean ridge and give its geographic location relative to other large features (flint: there are several maps presented to you in your textbook and lectures that will help with this)

28. What process leads to the formation of oceanic trenches?

29. What is the deepest oceanic trench, how deep is it, and what is the name of the deepest part of the trench?

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