Reduction and Oxidation: Definition and chemistry
Analysis of Results from Video Lab
1.Define reduction and Oxidation. Reduction : The gain of electrons by a substance involved in a redox reaction; always accompanies oxidation. Oxidation : The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction ; always accompanies reduction.
2.Explain why the sugar is called a reducing sugar?
3.Explain the chemistry behind a solution changing from blue to red.
4.Explain how the color gradient below was established. Which color represents the negative control?
1.Define and give examples of each, other than the ones already mentioned above.
a) monosaccharide: The simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CH2O. Monosaccharides are the monomers of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
b) disaccharide: A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction. Example are Sucrose, Maltose, and Lactose.
c)polysaccharide: A carbohydrate polymer of many monosaccharides ( sugars) linked by dehydration reactions. Example are: Starch , glycogen, and cellulose.
2.What is the predominant bond type (ionic, non-polar or polar) found in glucose? Would you expect glucose to be able to dissolve well in water? Explain.
3.If you were to take your glucose molecule and bond it to another glucose molecule exactly like it, what kind of chemical reaction would you be “modeling?”
4.What is the reverse of the reaction in #3?
5.If you kept repeating step #3 (underlined portion) what compound would be formed in the following locations:
a) a plant nutrient storage area?
b) a plant cell wall?
c) your liver and muscles?
7. Define these terms and state what types of food types they are most prevalent in.
1) saturated fat: A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds and the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are attached to the carbon skeleton. Saturated fats and fatty acids solidify at room temperature. Type:
2) unsaturated fat: A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail and thus lacks the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fats and fatty acids do not solidify at room temperature . Type:
3) polyunsaturated fat:
8. If you were to introduce a double bond between C#5 and C#6 in the diagram in #6b (by removing one H from C#5 and one from C#6 and substitute a double bond to satisfy the valence), how would this alter the molecule? What type of fatty acid have you just made?
9. Look in your book. List and define two other types of lipids.
10. What are phospholipids and why are they important? Phospholipids : A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving the molecule two non-polar hydrophobic tail and a polar hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membrances. The phospholipids are important because it provides both stability and flexibility.
12. Look in your textbook and briefly describe the relationship between DNA and proteins.
The relationship between DNA and Protein A double -stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) , cytosine ( C) , guanine ( G ) , and thymine ( T ) . Proteins A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure.