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NURS 4325 The Cognitive Impact of Chronic Diseases on Functional Capacity

Task:

Questions 1 - 9: Sample.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters:  9 & 12)

1. What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?

a. Simple random sampling

b. Systematic sampling

c. Little information is given about the sampling method

d. Network sampling

2. According to Grove & Gray (2019), what are the potential biases of convenience sampling?

a. This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias.

b. This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.

c. This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.

d. This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don't share these types of experiences.

3. What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?

a. 90 participants

b. 115 participants annually

c. 82 participants per month

d. 28 participants

4. Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?

a. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, an alpha value of 0.5, and an effect size of 0.2

b. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted, and 90 participants were needed.

c. The authors do not report that a power analysis was conducted.

d. The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using a power of 0.8, and alpha value of 0.5, and a moderate effect size.

5. Which of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article?

a. Participants had heart failure.

b. Participants were able to read and write.

c. Participants had diabetes or hypertension.

d. Participants had chronic conditions.

6. Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article?

a. Participants could not read or write.

b. Participants were less than seventy years old.

c. Participants with a history of heart attack.

d. Participants with a history of cognitive inflicted disorders.

7. What is the acceptance rate for this study?

a. 100%

b. 92/90 X 100% = 98%

c. 2/90 X 100% = 2%

d. unknown / cannot be calculated

8. Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?

a. 1/90 X 100% = 1%

b. 0%

c. 90/92 x 100% = 98%

d. unknown / cannot be calculated

9. What was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.

a. The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study's research design.

b. The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study's research design.

c. The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study's research design.

d. The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was NOT appropriate for this study’s research design.

Question 10 - 14: Measurement Methods.  (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)

10. Which ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this research study?

a. The Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living

b. The Charlson Comorbidity Index

c. The Bandura Self-Efficacy Scale

e. Clinical Skills Self-Efficacy Scale

11. How do the authors describe the reliability of the Charlson Comorbidity Index?

a. They allowed the participants to complete the scale in a location of their own choice.

b. They reported a Cronbach’s alpha level of 0.94.

c. They tested the current group of subjects using two different versions of the same scale (alternate forms reliability).

d. They mention that it has been found to have good inter-rater reliability.

12. How do the authors describe the validity of the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) used in this study?

a. They report Cronbach’s alpha scores for the DASI.

b. They mention that the DASI consists of 12 items on a dichotomous response option.

c. They report a study relating DASI scores to physiological measures. 

d. They report that possible scores for the DASI range from 0 to 58.2

13. Which statement is true regarding surveys used for this study?

a. The authors developed the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI).

b. The Seoul Verbal Learning Test, the Korean Trail Making Test, and the Controlled Word Association Test were administered.

c. Interviews were reportedly used, but the author does not explain what was included in them.

d. The authors developed their own questions to assess functional status.

14. Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?

a. Yes

b. No

Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)

15. Which of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?

a. Participants were interviewed by phone by nurse researcher.

b. A trained research assistant conducted interviews in person.

c. Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope.

d. Researchers consented participants after face to face discussion of study.

16. Based on the study's data collection methods, if there were more than one data collector, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?

a. Yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.

b. Yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.

c. No, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.

Question 17 - 19:  Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)

17. What descriptive statistics were NOT reported in this study?

a. mean

b. median

c. range

d. standard deviation

18. Which one of these inferential statistics were NOT used to examine the data obtained from the participants?

a. Pearson correlation

b. t test

c. Multiple regression

d. ANCOVA

19. What is the level of significance (alpha level) set at for this study?

a. .01 or 1%

b. .05 or 5%

c. .10 or 10%

d. An alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the article.

Question 20-25: Researcher’s Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)

20. Which statement from the article would be considered a significant result? 

a. Approximately two thirds (68.9%) had less than a high school education.

b. Trail Making Test times were greater among those who had diabetes or hypertension than among those who did.

c. Controlled Oral Word Association Test scores were higher among those who did not have diabetes or hypertension than among those who did.

d. The functional capacity increased by 1.5 points with every increase  in delayed recall memory.            

21. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result?

a. Digit Span Test scores were higher among those who did not have diabetes or hypertension than among those who did.

b. Seoul Verbal Learning Test scores were higher among those who did not have diabetes or hypertension than among those who did.

c. Older men had a higher incidence of hypertension and DM than other chronic diseases.

d. Participants with diabetes or hypertension had lower scores than those who did not for functional capacity.

22. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?

a. In this study, hypertension, with or without DM, was the most prevalent condition.

b. Evidence is still lacking regarding whether cognitive function is exceedingly constrained in people with hypertension or DM, as compared with other chronic conditions.

c. Limited evidence has been provided by prior studies with regard to poor cognitive function and/or its relevance to functional decline in patients with chronic diseases.

d. Many patients with hypertension or DM showed greater cognitive dysfunction, including memory loss and poorer executive function, than those with other chronic conditions in this study.

23. Which statement below, as reported by the author, would be considered a limitation of the study?

a. Validation of cognitive assessment in samples with chronic diseases is needed.

b. Previous studies have been limited by multiple factors, including global measures used for cognitive assessment.

c. Significant differences for hypertension and diabetes on functional ability were nullified when adjusting for age, gender, and education.

d. Many patients with hypertension or DM showed greater cognitive dysfunction, including memory loss and poorer executive function, than those with other chronic conditions in this study.

24. Which of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results? 

a. The sample consisted of participants from one geographical area.

b. The cognitive assessment instruments used need to be validated for samples with chronic diseases.

c. Significant differences for hypertension and diabetes on functional ability were nullified when adjusting for age, gender, and education.

d. Previous studies have been limited by multiple factors, including global measures used for cognitive assessment.

25. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies?

a. Providing cognitive screening in routine primary care or in the community for persons who are susceptible to chronic illness may facilitate earlier detection of cognitive decline.

b. More empirical evidence is necessary to better address the problem of mild cognitive impairment and its impact on outcomes in high-risk groups.

c. Cognitive impairment should be considered in care plans for the management of physical functional decline and the prevention or delay of adverse outcomes in persons at risk.

d. In addition to the functional decline associated with cognitive decline, its adverse impact on other health outcomes, including cardiac events, has been documented in chronically ill patients.

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