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A parenthetical citation is a referencing system in which in-text citations are made using parentheses. These citations follow a complete alphabetized list of citations in references. It also contains information such as the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number(s) if relevant. Such citations are used in a few referencing styles, including Harvard referencing, Chicago, APA style, and MLA style.
Unlike the other citation formats, a parenthetical citation follows simple orders, quotations, and lists to write the citations. However, these aren’t the only essentials you need to follow for the parenthetical citation. There’s more to it!
Now, if you think you do not know how to do a parenthetical citation on different referencing styles, read on to find out more about it!
Whether a student or professional writer, it can be tough to figure out exactly how the citation works within your paper or essay. From correcting grammar to figuring out the formatting, you must take the time to attribute ideas and quotes to sources correctly. The general format for parenthetical citations is (Metz, 1976).
Such parenthetical citations allow readers to locate the sources quickly. Moreover, it helps the experts and professors to ensure correct information in academic settings.
Usually, when you’re writing a paper that sticks to one referencing style, you must use it to show the readers where you got quotes and ideas. In most cases, you have to include the author’s last name and page numbers. So when can you use such citation within an essay? Here are the instances –
In the case of MLA referencing style, the format for parenthetical citations is used in in-text citations. It is described as author-page citations as it contains the author’s last name and page number or page ranges. Here’s an MLA parenthetical citation example –
Three+ authors: (Bowen et al. 23-56)
Are you wondering, “What is a parenthetical citation in APA referencing style?” Just like in MLA referencing style, APA referencing too follows parenthetical citations as author-date citations. However, the only difference between the two styles is that APA citation requires a publication date along with the author’s last name and the page number. These elements should be separated by commas.
Here’s an APA parenthetical citations example on a single author –
Each individual is influenced by aspect of a universal “collective unconscious” called “archetypes” (Jung, 2010, p.4)
When a source has two authors, include both names and separate them using an ampersand (&). For a source with more than two authors, you must include only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” While citing specific pages, write “p” before a sing page number; and “pp” before a page range or series of non-consecutive pages.
Some examples of multiple authors’ parenthetical citations:
In Chicago Referencing Style, the in-text citation follows the similar author-date style followed by the author’s last name, publication date, and page number. However, you need to include commas after the year but not after the author’s name.
Now, how to cite parenthetically for a single author? Here’s an example – Systems made of meaningless elements acquire meaning through self-reference (Hofstadter 1999, 3).
When a source has two or three authors, include each of their names in your in-text citation. For more than four authors, you have to include the name of the first author only, followed by “et al.” Follow these examples to know parenthetical citations:
So, bookmark this guide and follow it while using parenthetical citations in your writing!
Parenthetical citations can be a little confusing. However, our experts are familiar with the quintessential factors of writing citations with parenthetical examples. Furthermore, our experts provide valuable tips and free citation tools to make it easier.
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