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Path Of The Beam Outline

Components of Atoms

1. Overview

2. What are the three basic components of the atom, and where do they reside?

a. What charges are associated with each component of the atom?

b. What constitutes a stable atom vs. an unstable atom, both in terms of charge and the contents of the orbits?

c. Describe the energy of the orbital components with respect to their proximity to the nucleus

d. What is the “valence” of an atom?


3. What is the definition of “Energy?”

4. What type of energy is X-ray?


a. What are the two major “measurement” components of this spectrum of energy?


What is the relationship of these two components? Inverse? Direct? And how do they relate to high energy vs. low energy?


b. Where does X-ray exist on this spectrum?

c. What is the speed of X-ray photons in this spectrum of energy? What is “wave-particle duality?”


5. What are the properties of X-ray? 


6. What is the definition of “Electricity?”


a. What are the two major categories of Electricity?

b. Pursuant to the electrostatic laws, which atomic components are the only ones that can move?

c. But how does this relate to “Current?”

d. What is the difference between a conductor and an insulator?

e. What types of materials make good conductors? Why?


7. What are the required components of a physical simple circuit?

8. What are the 4 measurable components of electricity?


a. Describe what these components are or what they mean

b. Describe how these components relate to each other


9. Under the methods of “electrification” what is the most important for our purposes?

10. What is the difference between alternating and direct current? 

11. What is the relationship between electricity and magnetism

12. Why is Induction important to the production of X-rays?


a. What form of induction is most important to the radiographer? Why?

b. What are the three ways to induce a current into a conductor?


13. What is a transformer? 


a. What’s the difference between step-up vs. step-down transformers?

i. Describe with regard to numbers of coils

ii. Describe with regard to effects on voltage and amperage


14. What is rectification?


a. Why is rectification important? 


15. Describe a standard X-ray Tube, and what happens at, or the purpose of each one of the components


a. Cathode


i. Negatively charged

ii. Filaments (1) composed of what? Why? (2) step-down transformer (3) higher amperage/lower voltage (4) thermionic emission

iii. Focusing cup

iv. Kilovoltage burst


b. Anode


i. Positive side of tube

ii. Stationary or rotating based upon usage

iii. Composed of what? Why?

iv. What is the target?


16. Describe the tube housing and its purpose 


17. What are the specific interactions that happen at the target?


a. What happens there?


i. specifically what types of radiation are created there?

ii. Specifically describe how

iii. Which is of most value to the radiographer 


18. How much is converted to X-ray; and how much is converted otherwise? 


19. What do we term the beam that has left the tube toward the body?


20. What is the primary distinction between the interactions at the tube and the interactions in the body?


21. What are the 5 interactions between x-ray and matter, and what are the two most applicable to general diagnostic radiographers?


22. Please describe what happens in these two interactions


23. What are the three general outcomes of a photon entering the body? 


24. How does technique affect these outcomes? 

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