PHIL 1301 Philosophy
Section 1 Answer ONE of the following
1. According to Rachels, what is Cultural Relativism, what is the argument for this view, and what are at least two objections Rachels raises to Cultural Relativism?
2. Explain in detail Euthyphro’s Dilemma. Be sure to explain what theory of ethics it is a dilemma for.
3. According to Corvino, what are two possible and incorrect ways people do (or might) distinguish between facts and opinions? Explain his objections to both (i.e., explain how he argues each is wrong). Explain in detail his alternate, preferred definitions of statements of fact and statements of opinion.
Section 2 Answer TWO of the following. For each, answer as well how they would response to the following hypothetical case.
Hypothetical Case: “You are traveling with five other peace advocates in a war-torn country when your group is taken hostage by a group of terrorists. After a week, the terrorists’ demands have not been met, and they offer you a choice: either they will kill all of you, or if you execute one of your fellow hostages, you and the others are
free to go.” (Greene et al., 2001)
4. Explain utilitarianism, making sure to include the consequentialist principle and utility principle. What are the two types of utilitarianism and what are the differences between the two? What would a utilitarian say you should do in the hypothetical case? Explain your reasoning.
5. Explain deontology, making sure to include explanation of Kant's view on when an action has moral worth (and why). Explain the categorical imperative as stated in both the principle of the law of nature and the principle of ends. How would Kant say you should do in the hypothetical case? Explain your answer.
6. Explain virtue ethics as presented by Annas, making sure to include an explanation of what virtues, why we should be virtuous, and how to know what you should do. What would a virtuous person say you should do in the hypothetical case? Explain your reasoning.
Section 3 Answer TWO of the following
7. Explain in detail how Popper distinguishes science from pseudo-science.
8. Explain in detail Unger’s argument for skepticism.
9. According to Lewis, why is knowledge elusive? When do we have knowledge and how do we lose it?
10. Explain in detail Fricker’s account of social power, identity power, and testimonial injustice.