Were The Groups Comparable Other Than The Presence Of Disease In Cases Or The Absence Of Disease In Controls?
Were Cases And Controls Matched Appropriately?
Were The Same Criteria Used For Identification Of Cases And Controls?
Was Exposure Measured In a Standard, Valid And Reliable Way?
Was Exposure Measured In The Same Way For Cases And Controls?
Were Confounding Factors Identified?
In the report, the critical review of “Determinants of breast cancer in Saudi women from Makkah region: a case-control study (breast cancer risk factors among Saudi women)” article is done.
The study describe that in Makkah there is diversity of the populations so it become important to describe the appropriate factors of breast cancer among the diverse population. However, researchers conducted the case-control study which includes various factors and aspects such as socio-economic factors, histories of menstrual (Alsolami, et al., 2019). The percentage of increase in breast cancer among population is raised among women; the earlier researches revealed that breast cancer is increased due to number of factors which includes age, lifestyles, family history and due to several other reasons (Alsolami, et al., 2019). The main aim of the study is to understand the aspects and related factors for “postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer”.
The study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at “King Abdullah Medical City Hospital” which is in the Makkah region of Saudi Arabia. It is the only hospital which offers treatments to the women who all diagnosed with the breast cancer (Alsolami, et al., 2019). The study excluded the participants of other nationality and African- Asians ethnicity, the study also does not include women who diagnosed with any other cancer. Therefore, the total number of participates which involved in the study were 432 females in which “214 cases and 218 controls” were selected for the study. The groups were not comparable in the study because participates who all selected were diagnosed by breast cancer.The study involve participates which is > 45 years it is because the motive of the study is to include participates which were newly diagnosed with the breast cancer. The exposure is measured in most adequate and reliable manner by adopting same methods in both cases and control.
The data collection was done through developing the questionnaire that is taking the respondents through survey method. Further, data analysis is done by using “IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 20.0”, that is statistical technique is used to analyze data. The information gathering is done adopting convenience sampling method, the Body Mass Index is measured after the measurement of height and weight “Any participant with a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was classified as underweight, normal weight was 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 , overweight was 25–29.9 kg/m2 and obese was > 30 kg/m2” (Alsolami, et al., 2019). The participants which is between the age of 45 to 75 years old were involved in study, however, the mean age of case and control group were 57 ± 7.3.
From the investigation it is revealed that case and controls were matched adequately in the article and revealed that there are various factors through which more of the women in Makkah region diagnosed with breast cancer which includes more unemployment, lack of knowledge, larger size of the family and less awareness regarding the effects of breast cancer as well as the factors which give rise to the breast cancer (Alsolami, et al., 2019). Researchers also examined all the confounding factors and strategies for dealing with those factors. The results also reveal that there are several other reasons such as obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle. Researchers revealed that unemployed is the major reason that is majority of the population who all diagnosed from breast cancer is from the low income group. The obesity is also the another risk factor that is high BMI category, it is find that 24.3% control group and 63.6% case group revealed that obesity can be one of the reason for increasing breast cancer. The exposure is measured in most adequate and reliable manner by using similar method.
Researchers describe that exercise and physical activity can support he person to reduce the obesity among the women. The study revealed that smoking is also one of the issue and risk because it leads in increasing tumours which increase several types of cancer; in study up to 1.4% in control group marked yes and percentage of population who agree were 17.8%. the previous studies also revealed that smoking is become one of the reason which increase The breast cancer that is risk is “6.78 times” more to the population who smoke in comparison to the non-users (Alsolami, et al., 2019).The reproductive stage of women also results in hormonal change through which sometimes there is the development and occurrence of the breast tissue. The meta-analysis of the study which involve “118,924 populations who all diagnosed with breast cancer” and “306,091 without the disease” reveal that the younger the age there was increase in the risk of breast cancer. Further, in control group 7.8% marked diabetes, 15.1% reveal hypertension and 15.1% say hyperlipidemia is the reason by which more women were diagnosed with breast cancer. However, in comparison to this in case group 33.6% marked diabetes, 48.6% hypertension and 18.7% reveal hyperlipidemia (Alsolami, et al., 2019). The influence of hormonal change at the stage of reproductive is dangerous and increases the risk of breast cancer.
The investigation reveal that socioeconomic, obesity, history of menstruation is considered the more risky in increasing the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, the less awareness is also the major issues in Makkah region, so in order to reduce the rate of women the education programs will be developed so that more awareness about breast cancer will be spread.
Alsolami, F. J., Azzeh, F. S., Ghafouri, K. J., Ghaith, M. M., Almaimani, R. A., Almasmoum, H. A., et al. (2019). Determinants of breast cancer in Saudi women from Makkah region: a case-control study (breast cancer risk factors among Saudi women). BMC public health , 19 (1), 1554.