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Role of Genes in Drug Addiction: NFkB, Neuroepigenetics, and Genetic Variations

NFkB and its role in drug addiction

“Is there any role of genes in drug addiction or it is just based on environmental factors?”

Nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) is one of the transcriptions factor whose major role is to provide an innate immune response. However, there are some of the studies which also indicates its role in drug addiction. The study by Nennig and Schank is based upon analyzing the role of increased NFkB function towards increasing the risk of drug addiction. They conducted literature review in which the articles have been selected using PubMed. Their study presented that apart from inflammation, they also have in neuroimmune response which increases risk for drug addiction but this does not have a strong proof till now.

Drug abuse has always been associated with environmental factors and personal factors which also has some role of gene in it. Walker and Nestler presented an article which included description regarding the genes, expressions, addictions and various other factors associated with it. There are various studies which present that because of the changes in the environment, there is changes in genes which further increases the risk of drug addiction.

This article brings upon the association of candidate gene (CGAS) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with cannabis and cocaine addiction as various studies state that these two have large portion of nucleotides which are associated with drug use and abuse. After the study, it was observed that the most common genes which is associated with this are CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, and in the DRD2 and ANNK1 genes.

Examining the role of common genetic variants on alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and illicit drug dependence: genetics of vulnerability to drug dependence.

The number of this sample are 2596 unrelated subjects which have been selected from study of addiction as they had enough information associated with connection between genes and addiction. The results show that about 20 percent present that only one nucleotide is one or in other way is associated with substance dependency.

Etiological theories of addiction: A comprehensive update on neurobiological, genetic and behavioural vulnerability

There has been enough argument regarding the basis of addiction as people say that it has been derived from environmental factors and peer pressure. But biology and genes also have a very strong association with this which has been presented by Ouzir. They also showed interaction with other systems such as oxytocin, interoceptive insula, CRF and many others.

The molecular basis of drug addiction: linking epigenetic to synaptic and circuit mechanisms

The researchers used systematic review to analyze the molecular and role of gene in drug addiction. They presented that excessive dopamine signaling along with lifetime experience has a key role in increasing the chances of addiction. This has been evaluated by analyzing epigenetic mechanism.

The role of serotonin in drug use and addiction

While the other researchers were explaining the role of genes in addiction, Muller explained the role of serotonin in chances of drug addiction. This has been evaluated using systematic review where the serotonergic (5-HT) system has been associated with drug use disorders. This tends to have direct role upon the nervous system which increases person’s urge to take drugs.

Addiction pharmacogenetics: a systematic review of the genetic variation of the dopaminergic system

Patriquin along with other researchers focused toward conducting a systematic review for finding the genetic variation of dopaminergic system as this is associated with addiction pharmacogenetics. This article involves a computerized literature search which has been conducted using PubMed and Scopus. The researchers analyzed that dopamine has an evident role in addiction.

 New developments on the neurobiological and pharmaco?genetic mechanisms underlying internet and videogame addiction

This includes a brain imaging study conducted in resting state which contribute toward sensory and motor brain coordination. The basis of this was to prove association between video games and substance abuse which showed a positive relation. This is associated with pre mature stage.

Genetic studies of alcohol dependence in the context of the addiction

This study state that although alcoholism is associated with various environmental factors that creates difficulty in proper gene identification. GWAS has been used to analyze the genetic variations which are associated with traits and etiology of alcohol dependency. This also further analyses the various factors else than environmental,and gene which are associated with risk of drug abuse in people doing it.


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