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Question

Answered

Questions:

It has always been interesting to see how a teacher writes down the formula of various compounds with different subscripts of each symbol in the formula, example Na2S, HCl, K2O, MgCl2 etc. You might have wondered how much time they might have spent on memorizing the formulae for all these compounds.

How do you know that the formula of Magnesium chloride is MgCl2, and not Mg2Cl or MgCl, or Mg2Cl4! Here we will learn all the trick to write the formulae for ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are  generally formed by mixing metal and nonmetal ions or rather positive and negative ions.

Learning Objective

  • Predicting the charge of metal and nonmetal ions with fixed charges
  • Formulating a neutral compound by mixing and matching cations and anions
  • Illustrating the ratio of cations to anions to make a neutral ionic compound
  • Predict the ions formed in the aqueous dissociation (hydration) of ionic compounds in water

Chemical Safety, handling and storage

  • Step 1- Read the lab safety protocol given under materials<content<week 1. Complete and sign the lab safety contract on the last page. Save and upload it to assessments<assignment<week 1 materials.If you have completed it already, no need to upload it again. If you have not, complete it ASAP. Your lab experiments will be graded only if you have submitted your signed lab safety contract.

  • Step 2-Wear gloves and safety goggles when you handle chemicals.

  • Step 3-Google the SDS (Safety Data Sheet)for each chemical and material that you use for each experiment. Read and understand the safety measures to be taken during handling, storage, and disposal.

  • Step 4-Read the two documents given under Week1 materials under content on D2L about the storage and handling of chemical lab kits.

  • Step 5-Dispose the chemicals as mentioned in the above-mentioned documents. Wash/flush them down the drain with plenty of water as they are relatively safer chemicals in minute amounts.

  • Step 6-Wash all the labware including the pipet and well-plates. Turn off the multimeter and store it safely. Tighten all the solutions caps and store them in their original Ziplocs, do not mix them.

Prior Knowledge

  • Interpret the data from the Periodic Table of Elements like the chemical symbols, classification of groups, rows, main group, and transition elements.

Model

1A

 

2A

 

3A

4A

5A

6A

7A

8A

1+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1+

 

2+

 

 

 

3-

2-

1-

 

1+

 

2+

Transition metals and the rest of the unlabeled metals show variable ionic charges (exception Zn, Ag, and Hg). They are known as TYPE II Metals

Iron-Fe+2, Fe+3

Lead-Pb+2, Pb+4

Metals with fixed charge like 1A, 2A metals, Al, Zn, Ag, Hg are known as TYPE I Metals

 

Noble (inert) gases given in column 8A generally do not react or form ions

3+

 

3-

2-

1-

 

1+

 

2+

 

 

 

2-

1-

 

1+

 

2+

 

 

 

 

1-

 

1+

 

2+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1+

 

2+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Task 1

Ionic Charges and subatomic particles (Protons and electrons)-Review

Protons are the positively charged particles found in an atom. Electrons are the negatively charged particles. They are equal and opposite in the magnitude of charges. An atom is neutral with zero charge. This is because the number of positive protons is equal to the number of electrons.

However, when an atom loses or gains electrons, the number of electrons and protons are not the same. Therefore, the atom is no more neutral. It will acquire the charge of the particles found in excess. If there are two excess protons, it will be a cation with +2 charge. If there are three excess electrons compared to the protons, it will be an anion with -3 charge.

Charge = # of Protons (Atomic Number) - # of Electrons

Neutral atom

# of Protons   =

# of Electrons

Examples

10p=10eà  10-10=0

Ne atom

Positive ions (Cations)

# of Protons   >

# of Electrons

 11p > 10eà 11-10=+1

Na+ ion

Negative ions (Anions)

# of Protons   <

# of Electrons

9p < 10e  à9-10=(-)1

 F- ion

 
Materials required

Beads, dice, and the bigger well-plate (or any tray or lid to hold the beads and dice), periodic table to identify the element from the atomic number (=# of protons), camera to capture pictures

Method
Pick the right number of beads and dice in the well plates (tray) to show the models for corresponding ions or atoms and vice versa. Remember the atomic number is the number of protons.

So, you should be able to find the atomic symbol from the Periodic Table. See the example given in the first box. Take pictures and paste in the corresponding boxes. Complete all the cells with the correct information

 

Bead =Proton

Dice=Electron

Picture

Charge /

Symbol

1

6 p=6+

6 e=6(-)

 

Charge =p-e

=6-6 =0

Neutral atom

P=6=Atomic #6

Carbon atom

2

8p

6e

 

Charge =p-e

=___-___ =

Atom or ion?

P=__=Atomic #_

 Atom/ion symbol

3

16p

18e

 

Charge =p-e

=___-___ =

Atom or ion?

P=__=Atomic #_

 Atom/ion symbol

4

 

 

 

Charge =p-e

=20-18 =+2

Neutral atom

P=20=Atomic #20

Atom/ion symbol

5

 

 

 

Charge =p-e

=16-18 =

Atom or ion?

P=16=Atomic #16

 Atom/ion symbol

6

1p

Zero electrons

 

Charge =p-e

=___-___ =

Atom or ion?

P=__=Atomic #_

 Atom/ion symbol

7

Take all the beads

Take all the dice

 

Charge =p-e

=___-___ =

Atom or ion?

P=__=Atomic #_

 Atom/ion symbol

Introduction

Compounds are mainly classified as Ionic and molecular (covalent) compounds.

Ionic compounds are formed by the combination of opposites, positive and negative ions or simply metal (NH4+ -ammonium is an exception) and nonmetal atoms to make a neutral combination. Molecular (covalent) compounds are formed by the likes, only the nonmetal atoms and so no opposite ions or charges are involved.

Metal ions (positive cations) in nature electrostatically attracts enough number of counter ions (oppositely charged negative anions) to balance or neutralize the charge on it. This makes an ionic bond. In an ionic compound the entire material is made of repetitive units of negative and positive ions.

Positive metal ions are known by the name of the metal say Calcium ion, Sodium ion etc. However negative anions of nonmetal atoms are tweaked as “ide” in ions like chlorine as chloride ion, oxygen as oxide ion etc. 

                             

Questions

  1. Identify and write down the names and formulae of some elements from column 1A
  1. Identify and write down the names and formulae of some elements from column 7A
  1. Write the chemical formula for some noble gases.
  1. Based on the information from Table 1 given under the model, assign the ionic charges for the following main group elements

Element

H

 

Al

Br

N

S

Ba

Rb

Ne

Ion with Charge

H+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name the ions

Hydrogen ion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Based on the charges assigned to the above ions, predict the charges on the counter ion to neutralize the charge.

Element

H

 

Al

Br

N

S

Ba

Rb

Ne

Ion with Charge

H+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charge on the ion

 

1+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total charge on the counter ion to neutralize it

1-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. If there is one Na+ion, how many chloride ions are required to neutralize the charge? Why?
  2. If there is one O2-ion how many potassium ions are required to neutralize the charge? Why?

TASK 2

Purpose

To elucidate the mechanism behind the formation of ionic compound (bond) in fixed ratios

Materials required

Right-click copy, and paste the following pictures (sticky rectangle with charges written) with correct ionic charges in the compound table (Table 2) to make the model of the neutral compounds.

Example

Table 1

  1. Make a model for NaCl using the opposite positive and negative sticky rectangles. First find the charge on each ion like Na is +1, Cl is -1. Refer the model given on page# 2. Make a combination of positive and negative ions to get a total zero charge. Copy paste that many stickies from the above table and make the model and write the formula of the neutral ionic compound. Paste and label model in the space given below. Model of MgF2is also shown.

Table 1

Elements

Model for the neutral compound

Formula for the neutral compound

Name

 

 

Na and

Cl

 

Na is +1 and Cl is -1

 

 

       Na+      Cl-       Charge=0                Paste the model here

*Label with chemical formula and ionic charges

 

 

NaCl

 

Neutral compound

Sodium chloride

Mg and F

 

Mg is +2

And F is -1

 

Mg 2+     F-       F-    Charge =0

 

Mg with two Fluoride ions

  

MgF2

Neutral compound

Magnesium fluoride

 

No charge is present

  1. Table 2

Complete the following table by pasting the model for the following ionic compounds Label them with chemical formula and ionic charge.

#

Elements

Model for the neutral compound

Formula for the neutral compound

1

Ca  and  Br

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Ca   and   O

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

K      and    S

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Al    and    Br

 

 

 

 

 

5

K      and    N

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

Al     and     O

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Mg   and     N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TASK 3

Dissociation of Ions and Conductivity in water (aqueous solutions)

Purpose

To illustrate the reverse process of ionic bond formation in Task 2. Most of the ionic compound dissolve in water and form solvated (hydrated) free ions back. When free ions are available in a solution it can act as an electrolyte to conduct electricity. The more the ions present higher the conductivity of the electrolyte solution.

Materials Required

Multimeter to measure conductivity (we will measure resistivity instead of conductivity and would calculate conductivity as the inverse), well-plates to hold solutions, pipet, paper towel, gloves, plain white paper strips to smear the solutions on, a pencil for labelling, and the following solutions/materials; Copper metal strip, Iron metal strip, corn starch, Bromothymol blue, Bromophenol blue, Red food coloring, Hydrochloric acid, Copper sulfate, Zinc nitrate, oil( optional-if you have at home), pencil lead.

Method

Wear gloves. Take 10 drops of each solution mentioned in the following table in separate clean wells of the bigger well-plate. Connect the multimeter to the black and red leads. Turn the knob to 2000kΩ.

Turn the second well plate upside down to use as a platform to streak the solution as shown in the first picture. Otherwise take a white aper strip and lay it on top of the plate, label with a pencil and smear the solutions on it.

Turn on the multimeter and pin the probes into the solution smear or metal or powder strip. The leads should be at least one centimeter apart as shown above. Record the resistivity value displayed. It may be unsteady, but take a rough estimate and record as the resistivity.  Say the value is jumping between 450 and 550 kΩ, write it as 500 kΩ.

Before putting the probe in the next material solution wash the probe and dry with a paper towel. If there is very little or no resistivity (highly conductive)it will show 0.00, If it shows “1” that means the resistivity is very high (no conductivity) and is an insulator.

Lower the resistivity value higher the conductivity, as both are inversely related. Remember free flowing ions/charges in a material makes it conductive. Take pictures of two of the following measurements (not the ones shown in the following pictures) and paste it below the following pictures.

Data table

No

Solutions                            

Resistivity

kΩm

Conductivity

Conductivity

1/resistivity value

1/(kΩm)

1

Touch the end of the red and black leads

together

 It should give a zero

 Yes

NA

2

Copper strip

 

 

 

NA

3

Iron strip

 

 

 

NA

4

Corn starch

 

 

 

NA

5

Red food coloring

Example-

61 kΩm

 

1/61 /kΩm

=0.016/ kΩm

5a

Red food coloring (repeat)

 

 

 

6

Tap water

 

 

 

7

Bromophenol blue

 

 

 

8

Bromothymol blue

 

 

 

9

Copper nitrate

 

 

 

10

Zinc nitrate

 

 

 

11

Hydrochloric acid

 

 

 

12

Oil

 

 

 

 

Questions

  1. Which of the solution showed the highest conductivity? Why?
  2. Which of the solutions showed the least conductivity? Why?
  3. Show the dissociation of the ionic compound NaCl into hydrated ions in water using an equation.
  4. Complete the following dissociation process for the following ionic compounds in water

#

Compound

Dissociation equation with appropriate ionic charges

1

NaBr

NaBr(s) à Na+ (aq) + Br-(aq)  

  *aq-dissolved in water (aqueous)

2

CaCl2

CaCl2(s) à Ca2+ (aq) + 2Cl-(aq)  

  *aq-dissolved in water (aqueous)

2

K2S

 

3

AlCl3

 

4

CO

 

5

C12H22O11

 

 

 

 

5 Describe the difference between ionic and molecular compounds in terms of the types of elements/atoms present.

Grading Rubric

Points for completion

Task 1

Task 2

Task 3

Table

0.5 points

1 point

1.5 points

Pictures

0.5 points

NA

0.5 points

Questions

0.5 points

 

0.5 points

Total

=5 points

 

 

 

CHEM101 General Chemistry

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