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Drug use is one of the biggest problems in prison. It threatens security, dominates the relationship between inmates and employees, and leads to violence, harassment and harassment in inmates and often to spouses and friends in society (Binswanger et al., 2018). Although the number of drug use programs in prisons has recently increased, there are still many controversies. Funds for the construction and maintenance of prisons take precedence over funds for treatment. Political decision-makers who oppose the extension of drug dependence programs for convicted offenders are based on several arguments (Losel et al., 2020). Rehabilitation programs are too sensitive to the offender’s crime. The public wants more criminals to be punished, not more rehabilitation programs. The rehabilitation program is too expensive and does not work. Many argue that prisons encourage criminals and guarantee what they deserve. Each of these arguments should be taken seriously. The link between abuse and criminal activity is a concept that is widely accepted by the public and professional personnel. This paper shall critically discuss the notion that individuals who have committed a crime and face substance use problems can be treated more effectively in prison settings. Both the negative and positive sides of the notion would be assessed in light of the existing literature and evidence.
Prevalence Of Substance Use Disorder In The UK
According to a criminal investigation in England and Wales (CSEW), by 2020, about 1 in 11 adults aged 16 to 59 will use the drug (9.4%, 3.2 million). Cannabis remains the most common drug among adults aged 16-59 and 16-24 years old last year, with 7.8% and 18.7%, respectively, and powdered cocaine was found in children between the ages of 16 and 59 (2.6%) (Robinson, 2021). The use of nitrous oxide between the ages of 16-24 (8.7%). In 2019/2020, police in England and Wales registered approximately 175,000 drug-related crimes. 2.6 million people struggled with alcohol and drugs, 4.5 million with drugs, and 14.4 million with alcohol. Since men make up about 4/5 of the US prison population, much attention is paid to the distribution and treatment of substance abuse for men (Widinghoff et al., 2019). However, the number of women in the criminal justice system is growing significantly.
Substance Use Disorders
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) states that the defining characteristic of substance use disorder is a cognitive, behavioural, and physiological symptom that indicates persistent abuse despite negative consequences (Chanques et al., 2018). These defining attributes are measured by the DSM-5 using specific diagnostic criteria to investigate use control impairment, social decline, material risk, and pharmacological criteria. Addiction, also known as substance use disorder, is a medical condition that affects an individual’s brain and behaviour, leaving the use of legal or illegal drugs or drugs out of control. Substances such as alcohol, marijuana and nicotine are also considered as drugs. Addiction can begin with the experimental use of recreational drugs in social situations, and drug use occurs more often in some people (Bach et al., 2018). For others, especially when using opioids, addiction begins with taking a prescription drug or taking the drug from a friend or relative who prescribed it. The exact cause of substance use disorder is unknown. Factors can include an individual’s genes, drug effects, peer pressure, emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and environmental stress. Many people who suffer from substance abuse have depression, carelessness, PTSD, or other mental problems. A stressful or confusing lifestyle and low self-esteem are also common. Growing children who see their parents use the drug are at higher risk of developing substance use problems in the future due to environmental and genetic reasons.
Common substances include opiates, stimulants, depression, LSD, and marijuana. Alternatives and other drugs relieve severe pain that could lead to drowsiness and sometimes relieve intense feelings of well-being, excitement, happiness, excitement, and joy. These include heroin, opiates, codeine, and pain relievers that can be prescribed by a doctor or purchased illegally. Drugs that activate the brain and nervous system are known as stimulants. These include cocaine and amphetamines, such as drugs used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate or Ritalin). Over time, one may need large amounts of drugs to experience the same effects. Depression causes drowsiness and reduces anxiety. These include alcohols, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (Valium, Ativan, Xanax), hydrochloride and paraldehyde. The use of these substances could cause abuse. LSD, mescaline, psilocybin (“fungus”), and phencyclidine (PCP or “angel dust”) make an individual see what doesn’t exist (hallucinations) and can lead to mental abuse.
Relation Between Substance Use Disorders And Committing Crimes
According to a study by Widinghoff et al. (2019), substance abuse is closely related to crime. Addicts commit crimes to pay for drugs, which harms society. Also, many criminals get drunk when they commit a crime. Drug trafficking is another consequence of drug abuse. Most people who are enrolled in the Criminal Justice System (CJS) use illegal drugs or have substance abuse problems at the time of the arrest. In addition, many people commit property crimes to raise money to buy drugs, and participation in drug trafficking organizations often puts people in a position to commit other crimes. Stimulants such as cocaine or methamphetamine have psychopharmacological impacts, which can further rise the possibility of violent crimes. Above 80% of state and local prison inmates in the UK have used illegal drugs. A month before arrest, about 55% have a high life expectancy for cocaine (42%), cracks (24%), and methamphetamine (23%) or heroin (19%). That said, a 2010 study in the UK found that 70% of male prisoners increased from 11.2% of the general male population to substance abuse. Alcohol is most commonly associated with violent crimes. According to the information available, drug addicts have committed 21.4% of violent crimes. Of those arrested in Australia in 2004, 82% had substance abuse, 69% abused drugs six months before their arrest, and 62% were frequent substance abusers. The relationship among the substance abuse and violence is evident in various populations and types of abuse, such as social violence and violent crime recidivism. The highest risk of violence takes place concurrently with drug and alcohol usage.
The Empirically Supported Treatments
Section 12 of the American Psychological Association (APA) lists the following psychological treatments in relation to substance abuse with substantial research support: “behavioural couples therapy for alcohol use disorders, prize-based contingency management for alcohol use disorders, prize-based contingency management for cocaine dependence, Friends Care for mixed substance abuse/dependence, prize-based contingency management for mixed substance abuse/dependence, guided self-change for mixed substance abuse/dependence, moderate drinking for alcohol use disorders, motivational interviewing, motivational enhancement therapy (MET), and MET plus CBT for mixed substance abuse/dependence, and Seeking Safety for mixed substance abuse/dependence” (Sakaluk et al., 2019). Drug treatment options are categorized according to the substance used. There are a variety of treatments available, especially for opioid, tobacco, and alcohol use disorders. This guide also covers behavioural therapy, and, like drug therapy, different therapies are better suited to other topics. Due to the many factors contributing to substance use disorders, various treatment options must be considered to determine the most appropriate treatment plan. Drug therapy for opioid disorders includes methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone (Tran et al., 2017). Methadone and buprenorphine are effective in treating withdrawal symptoms and reducing cravings for opioid dependence. There are drug therapy treatment options for substance use disorders, but we recommend combining medication and behavioural therapy to best suit your individual treatment needs. Behavioural therapy for substance abuse disorder is designed to change an individual’s attitude toward substance abuse, encourage participation in treatment, stimulate permanence, and learn skills to deal with clues and environmental events that can lead to a serious and return to addiction. It is effective. Many forms of behavioural therapy provide empirical support in the treatment of substance use disorders. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) effectively treats a variety of substance use disorders, which challenges the learning process leading to problem behaviour and helps teach other healthy coping skills (Teeters et al., 2017).
Drug Abuse Treatment Effectiveness In The Prison Setting
Many drug addicts contact the criminal justice system when they are sent to jail or other prison facilities. The criminal justice system is filled with people who are drug addicts. However, according to Bielen et al. (2018), people are not receiving adequate treatment due to limited access to adequate treatment in prisons. Some treatments have been practised in the prison system, but human rights and structural factors make it difficult to introduce others. Behavioural therapy, including family therapy or reversal therapy, is inappropriate due to systemic structure and human rights. It is unethical to store things from prisoners in prisons, making it difficult to implement crisis management measures. Drug therapy provides empirical support in the treatment of substance use disorders. However, since psychotropic drugs are outside the practice of psychology, these treatments will not be discussed in detail in this review.
According to Harp and Oser (2018), the relationship between drug abuse and crime indicates the need for treatment in prison. They argued that treatment in prison could save lives. Inmates receiving treatment during detention have a lower risk of drug use, relapse, and drug-related death. Many prisons support those struggling with substance abuse. Currently, many prisons offer psychotherapy sessions, worship meetings, and 12-step programs as anonymous alcoholics to inmates with substance abuse issues (Bosma et al., 2020). These are self-help groups in which participants acknowledge past mistakes, succumb to higher powers, and learn to be cool. Alcoholics Anonymous is the first twelve-stage group formed in the 1930s. Since then, the 12-step programs have spread around the world. Emphasizing that meetings with unknown alcoholics are common in prisons. This meeting is designed to assist the inmates live a sober life in prison and release. Through this program, inmates can learn more regarding the sources of alcohol problems and strategies to prevent alcohol abuse. With the same, the 12-step programs, federal prisons offer various programs designed to help inmates overcome substance abuse disorders.
Volkow et al. (2019) expressed the view that inmates are trained in the dangers of addiction in many prisons. The program also assists the federal prisons identify inmates who need more extensive care. However, there are other programs, such as out-of-hospital drug dependence and inpatient drug dependence. Out-of-hospital programs use cognitive behavioural therapy, a psychotherapist that changes behaviour to help inmates fight addiction. Drug-dependent group therapy is for inmates who have been sentenced to short sentences, tested positive on a urine test, are not eligible near the prison, or have been released for a treatment program (Murphy et al., 2018).
On the other hand, community drug programs are the most intensive drug programs offered by the federal prisons. In this 9-month program, inmates learn to live in a social society. They participate in half-day programs and half-day work, academic or professional activities. Well-designed prison treatment programs reduce the likelihood of recidivism, crime, imprisonment and recidivism. In other words, there is a chance that a convicted criminal commits suicide. It also improves education, builds relationships, increases employment opportunities at release, and improves public health. When offenders who are more likely to develop substance abuse disorders come into contact with the criminal justice system, they may be subject to further screening, commissioned evaluations, and simple intervention from trained healthcare professionals. The assessment can determine whether the offender is drug addictive or harmful and if the diagnosis is harmful substance abuse, in many cases, short-term treatment can be discontinued as described above. If the assessment indicates that the person is a drug addict, an alternative treatment to drug dependence treatment may be provided. Suppose other physical/mental or social health problems are identified during the evaluation process. In that case, the perpetrator may be referred to a service that can provide Treatment and Treatment for these problems.
Many argue that prisons encourage criminals and guarantee what they deserve. Each of these arguments should be taken seriously. On the other hand, Van Os et al. (2019) argued that there was a strong link between mental health and substance abuse issues, and taking this into account, and they argued that many prisons have overcrowded factors that negatively affect different types of mental health. Violence. Obsessive loneliness or, on the contrary, lack of integrity, lack of meaningful activity, isolation from social networks, uncertainty about prospects, inappropriate medical services in prisons, especially psychiatric services. Prison is a dangerous environment due to many overcrowded, stressful, hostile and violent places with poor ethnic and social communities, including drug addicts and immigrants. Unfortunately, an increased risk of suicide in prison (often associated with depression) is one of the most common signs of the cumulative effect of these factors.
Mann et al. (2017), too, in this notion, has claimed that Prisons are sometimes used as landfills for people with mental disabilities. Treatment of substance abuse disorder for perpetrators, he said, should primarily focus on increasing intrinsic motivation, developing new problem-solving skills, and developing skills to combat abuse or criminal activity. Aggressive behaviour can be countered by helping individuals recognize the negative consequences directly related to the attack and by helping individuals to find appropriate rewarding behaviour (Doyle et al., 2019). treatment should include healthy human skills that can improve an individual’s ability to become a productive member of society. Attitudes and beliefs that support aggressive behaviour often contribute to drug use, and cognitive skills training can challenge these beliefs and help replace beliefs that support a healthy lifestyle.
Furthermore, a European study of health problems in prisons has identified three major problems: substance abuse, mental health problems, and infectious diseases Kindall et al., 2018). These three problem areas are closely linked. The harms linked with drug addicts in the criminal justice system include high rates of HIV infection and viral hepatitis, high prevalence of tuberculosis in some countries, limited access to harm reduction, and drug dependence and treatment of blood-borne viruses, risk of infection, increased risk of deaths due to overdose upon release, increased risk of transmission of acquired infections in prison, and increased risk of reoffending upon release (Western & Simes, 2019). Prisons are a highly risky environment for HIV and other blood-borne infections for several reasons. First, a disproportionate number of prisoners enter and return to an environment where the prevalence of HIV-infected infections is high, and the prison authorities do not recognize the presence of HIV and blood viruses. There were early signs that HIV could spread in prison. The outbreaks of HIV in prisons has been documented in several countries to show how quickly HIV can spread in prisons if effective measures are not taken to prevent infection.
Clinicians and criminal justice personnel work together to ensure that all sides are aware of what is needed and anticipated. Care may be adjusted to ensure that facility standards are met thanks to coordination between those offering supervision and those providing treatment. Individuals who use community-based services after being released are more likely to stay substance-free, according to Harp and Oser (2019). While prison-based treatment is intended to start the transformation process to mitigate criminal behaviour and drug use after release, community-based treatment may assist in addressing possible relapse triggers and issues that might occur as they return to society. Individuals are often released into the same setting, increasing the chances of drug abuse and criminal behaviour resuming (Doyle et al., 2019). Individuals who enter community-based treatment will draw on the gains they have made in prison-based treatment.
To promote therapy completion and appropriate behaviour, rewards and penalties should be balanced. When it comes to incentives and punishments, they are most successful when applied efficiently and are viewed as appropriate for the situation. Social reinforcers may be used as incentives, and punishments function best when they start mild and gradually increase in severity as the level of offence. When using incentives and sanctions to form behaviour, they must be consistent and predictable. Offenders of drug use disorders and other co-occurring mental health disorders should be treated with an integrated treatment approach. Individuals in prison and those with drug use disorders have a high incidence of mental health issues. While mood disorders and drug use disorders may often be treated together, personality, cognitive, and other severe mental health disorders are more difficult to treat with substance use disorders using an integrated approach because these disorders are often difficult to treat or resistant to treatment.
Treatment planning for the criminal justice community should also include educational materials and guidelines for preventing and treating severe medical conditions such as hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. When managing this group, the practitioner’s job includes advising on suitable healthcare alternatives. This can include topics like promoting compliance and addressing the importance of physical fitness in mental health improvement.
Hence, from the above analysis, it is to conclude that individuals who have committed a felony and are struggling with drug abuse issues cannot be successfully handled in jail. There is a strong connection between criminal behaviour and drug abuse, resulting in a high percentage of people in jail who meet the requirements for a substance use disorder. While prisons depend heavily on punishment to change behaviour, research has been done to see whether positive reinforcement can motivate people to change their ways. Drug use in jail is held in the strictest of confidence, and drug seizure reports based purely on the confiscation of needles/syringes and positive urine test rates only tell part of the tale. The patterns of drug usage in the prison population differ significantly between different groups. Women’s substance usage, for example, varies greatly from men’s, with varying levels and forms of misuse, as well as different motivations and behavioural outcomes.
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