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‘Foucault argued that observation and monitoring of the individual is not only one of the key characteristics of contemporary life but also one of the principal means by which power is exercised’ (Oliver 2010, p. 41). Discuss in relation to a social/political issue in two set texts.
According to Foucault, power refers to the driving force of life that pushes the individual to grow according to the situations that are faced by the concerned individual. The power situations that are implemented with domination or the coercive nature of the situations that are faced by concerned individuals. Foucault states that the power is not a structured factor nor an agency that affects the concerned individuals who have been dealing with the political and the social situations as well (Oliver 2010). The following paper attempts a discussion on the issues that have been highlighted due to the observation as well as the monitoring of the concerned individuals help in the understanding of the issues that are highlighted with the exercising of the power on the concerned individuals. The paper highlights the social and the political issues that are highlighted within the given texts and after that discusses the issue in light of how the monitoring and the observation of an individual are considered to be one of the significant characteristics through which the exercise of the power is maintained among the people. The paper highlights the social and the political factors that are highlighted within the given set texts.
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The major social issue that has been highlighted in the article “Out of Touch Together” refers to the insecurity that is faced by the concerned residents of the countries in terms of the human interaction among themselves. The concerned article tends to deal with the higher density within the urban areas help in the growth in the social convention within the urban areas as well (Bauman 2013). The residents of the urban areas are known to have been dealing with the significant insecurity that is felt by the concerned residents in terms of the higher density of the population, the urban communication and the interaction. The article highlights the power intensity within the urban localities as have been highlighted within the various cities that are presented all over the world. The article highlights the fact that the power interest within the urban territories tends to instill a rule of the terror among the concerned residents. The residents of the urban areas are known to have been dealing with the matters relevant to the mystery that surrounds the concerned residents. The article in discussion highlights that the presence of the trenches and the bunkers that have bear testimony to the trauma created within the minds of the people due to the exercise of power by the ruling and the governing individuals or the groups of individuals (Goldthorpe 2017). The contemporary literature had further suggested the fact that the trauma had been a commonplace instance in case of the majority of the residents within the several urban areas all over the world.
The majority of the issues that are presented within the given article state the residences within the cities in the present-day world tend to serve the role of the protectors of the dwellers. The residences within the city tend to fail the purposes of the integration of the concerned residents with the communities that surround the people. The residents who have been present within the given area who do not have the proper means are often observed by the other residents as potential threats to the safety of their residence. Thus, they tend to force the residents to leave the urban residences so that they do not continue posing a threat to the actual residents in the urban area (Wrong 2017). The power influence, in this case, refers to the power exercised by the urban dwellers over the people who have been arriving at the city form the districts that are closer to the city.
The authors reveal the fact that the concerned residents of the urban areas belonging to the lower-tier of the society tend to face issues regarding their localities. The lower-tier members of the society tend to face issues regarding the fulfilment of their dreams and the discontentment areas that are faced by the lower-tier members of the society at the hands of the residents who belong to the upper-tier of the concerned locality (Belmi and Laurin 2016). The significant issues that are highlighted in this case, refer to the isolation of the concerned residents and the power that is implemented by the existing residents of the area (Blau 2017). The various policies that are implemented by the people in discussion refer to the abidance by the various political aspects that have been undertaken by the concerned residents as well as the various governing bodies within the area. The implementation of the political aspects has, in a broader sense, helped in the monitoring of the people and their activities that are undertaken by them. The argument as stated by Foucault might be highlighted in this case and refers to the various factors that are related to the overall understanding of the matters that are related to the interpretation of the power exercised by the residents of the area as well (Porter 2015). The authors in this article highlight the different forms of power as have been exercised by the concerned residents of the urban area as well as the various governing bodies and the governmental institutions that have been present within the area.
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On the other hand, the article entitled “Why Race, Class, And Gender Still Matter”, Andersen and Collins (2013), shed significant light on the various areas of discrimination that is maintained within the given societies. The article aims at shedding significant light on the formation of and the maintenance of the United Nations. The book chapter highlights the fact that the concerned urban areas, as well as the rural areas that are present within the countries of the world, need to be governed on the lines that relate to the maintenance of the equality among the individuals residing within the various countries within the world. The article highlights the fact that several movements have been conducted in the past years highlight the importance of equality among the residents of the given nation. The most significant of these movements refer to the feminist movements as well as the various movements that had been conducted in order to establish the civil rights within the given areas (Mittal and Elias 2016). The authors further opined that the societal structure as is maintained in the present days tend to be affected by the various discriminatory grounds such as the gender, class, race of the person concerned. This, in turn, affects the societal progress within the given country. The exercise of the power within the given country takes into account the various discriminations that are undertaken by the concerned residents on the grounds of the caste, race and the gender of the residents (Erel, Reynolds and Kaptani 2017). This affects the power distribution as well as the implementation of the inequality among the residents within the country as well.
The article in discussion helps in the proper comprehension of the several issues that are highlighted among the residents of the country. The article highlights a stoic example in this case. The article puts forth the scenario that had been observed in the United States during the conditions that were faced by the country when Hurricane Katrina had struck the area. The portrayal of the poor and financially backward African-American population of the country had highlighted the high amount of the discrimination that had been existent within the country as well. The images helped in the understanding of the discrimination that was present within the residents of the United States (Fiske and Hancock 2016). The concerned example further highlights the various ways in which the discrimination within the country was brought to the limelight by the various news and the other media channels. The example helped the researchers in the understanding of the fact that the discrimination on the part of the various governmental bodies in terms of the racial factors and the financial factors had been highlighted by the media (Hurst, Gibbon and Nurse 2016). This might be explained with the help of the arguments that were put forth by Foucault in relevance to the implementation of the monitoring and the observation of the financial status of the stranded people as compared to the other members constituting the residential strength of the country.
The book chapter in discussion further shed light on the issues that have been shed light on through the discrimination of the citizens of the country based on the genders. The article helps in shedding major light on the issues regarding the contribution of the female members of the society with the help from the experiences that are faced by the women within the given society. The studies that were conducted within the realm of the contribution of the female members of the society help in the analysis of the experiences that have been shared by the female members and thereby help in understanding the issues that are emphasised within the given society (Abbott and Wallace 2016). The significant areas of research as have been observed in the present days refer to those that were conducted in the discrimination that was practised within the given societies as well. The researches signify the fact that the social structure is one of the primary constructs that affect the power exercise within the given country. The power is generally observed to have been exercised based on the social strata that are generally followed within the country. The power exercise generally follows a top-down approach in case of the social structures as have been maintained within the world (Schor and Attwood‐Charles 2017). This leads to the implementation of the power equation from the higher end of the social structures leading to a more significant amount of pressure to be felt at the lower-tiers of the social structures. The article further highlights the fact that the studies on the various interconnections that are available within the various societal groups that are existent within a given country would further help in the enrichment of the knowledge base on the matters like the criminal justice and the proper access to the various amenities that should be granted to all the residents of the nation irrespective of any discrimination on the part of the governing bodies (Scase 2016). The proper emphasis on the societal structures and the effects of the same on the livelihood maintained by the residents of the area might assist the understanding the exercise of the power within the given society and the dependence of the matters on the historical factors as were highlighted within the given society as well. The multiculturalism that is practised within the given country of the United States has further influences on the social structure that is maintained within the territorial boundaries of the country (Pratto 2016). The execution of the power within the social structure of the country is known to be significantly influenced by the management of the multicultural factors as have been highlighted within the country. This, in turn, leads to the maintenance of the social structure and the harmony within the country.
The above discussion might be concluded with the viewpoint that the observation of the residents of the country might help in the understanding of the power structure that is followed within the given territorial boundaries. The residences within the city tend to fail the purposes of the integration of the concerned residents with the communities that surround the people. The residents who have been present within the given area who do not have the proper means are often observed by the other residents as potential threats to the safety of their residence. Thus, they tend to force the residents to leave the urban residences so that they do not continue posing a threat to the actual residents in the urban area. The social movements have been conducted in the past years highlight the importance of equality among the residents of the given nation. The most significant of these movements refer to the feminist movements as well as the various movements that had been conducted in order to establish the civil rights within the given areas. Thus, it might be concluded that the understanding of society plays a huge role in the understanding of the power exercise within the given social boundaries.
Abbott, P. and Wallace, C. eds., 2016. Gender, power and sexuality. Springer.
Andersen, M., and Collins, P. H., 2013. Race, class, & gender: An anthology. Nelson Education.
Bauman, Z., 2013. Liquid times: Living in an age of uncertainty. John Wiley & Sons.
Belmi, P. and Laurin, K., 2016. Who wants to get to the top? Class and lay theories about power. Journal of personality and social psychology, 111(4), p.505.
Blau, P., 2017. Exchange and power in social life. Routledge.
Erel, U., Reynolds, T. and Kaptani, E., 2017. Participatory theatre for transformative social research. Qualitative Research, 17(3), pp.302-312.
Fiske, J. and Hancock, B.H., 2016. Power plays power works. Routledge.
Goldthorpe, J.H., 2017. Social inequality and social integration. In Social Policy and Public Policy (pp. 32-40). Routledge.
Hurst, C.E., Gibbon, H.M.F. and Nurse, A.M., 2016. Social inequality: Forms, causes, and consequences. Routledge.
Mittal, R. and Elias, S.M., 2016. Social power and leadership in cross-cultural context. Journal of Management Development, 35(1), pp.58-74.
Oliver, P., 2010. Foucault-The Key Ideas: Foucault on philosophy, power, and the sociology of knowledge: a concise introduction. Hachette UK.
Porter, J., 2015. Vertical mosaic: An analysis of social class and power in Canada. University of Toronto Press.
Pratto, F., 2016. On power and empowerment. British journal of social psychology, 55(1), pp.1-20.
Scase, R., 2016. Social Democracy in Capitalist Society (Routledge Revivals): Working-Class Politics in Britain and Sweden. Routledge.
Schor, J.B. and Attwood‐Charles, W., 2017. The “sharing” economy: labor, inequality, and social connection on for‐profit platforms. Sociology Compass, 11(8), p.e12493.
Wrong, D., 2017. Power: Its forms, bases and uses. Routledge.
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