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The Merger and Acquisition: Background and Strategy

Discuss about the Business Strategy case of Daimler and Chrysler.

Daimler Ag is one of the most popular German based automotive companies that mostly manufacture engines, motor vehicles as well as automobile. In the year of 1998 the company entered into a merger and acquisition with another most popular Michigan based automotive company, Chrysler Group LLC. The merged business entities started to operate their business under the name of DaimlerChrysler AG. However, the merging had transpired only for a short time i.e. until 2007, it has presented a great deal of examples for a strong point of merging along with various drawbacks (Cartwright and Cooper 2012). According to the CEO of both of the companies, the main purpose of the merger and acquisition was to form a multi-billion business formation by uniting both successful business entities. The strategic move was mainly aimed to drive out the competition of the market and thereby dominate the automotive industry.

Despite all of that, it was evident that Chrysler was in dire need of this particular kind of strategic move, which ensured financial support. The last internal struggle to overthrow the hostile takeover by its shareholder had damaged the company’s financial foundation. In addition to that, the company sensed a necessity of change and business expansion. In this context, Daimler-Benz has been proved to be the most perfect match for Chrysler as it is a financially self-sufficient multinational business organization (Phillips and Zhdanov 2013). On the other hand, Daimler had the perfect opportunity of diversifying the product range with an effective fashion. Most of the business scholars agreed that the merger and acquisition between Daimler and Chrysler would be successful because of their lack of conflicting interest.

However, in the end the merger and acquisition proved to be a futile effort due to numerous imperative discrepancies between these two companies. The foremost issue which had been identified was the contradictory corporate culture which had raised a critical concern regarding the work environment of the merged companies (Ferris et al. 2013). In the same context, it had also been observed that unlike Chrysler’s tendency of being innovative and exploring, Daimler mostly relied on the hierarchy as well as formality, where business activities were concerned. Moreover, the cross border cultural contrast also has been a major obstacle for successfully making the merger successful. Employee expectations, management style as well as public relation had a great amount differences which ultimately hindered the actual merging and acquisition process at a whole.

Benefits and Drawbacks of the Merging

The merger and acquisition refers to the process where two or more companies undergo through a transaction process where the ownership of the companies, business organizations as well as the various operating units are combined as well as transferred. The mergers and acquisition is mostly focused with the growth, shrinkage as well as change of the entire business setting. The major focus of the Mergers and acquisition is mostly focused on attaining the most necessary improvement of the competitive position of the respective business organizations (Angwin 2012). In the contemporary world, the extensive study of mergers and acquisitions ha identified that the majority of the business organizations are deeply inclined towards this particular strategic movement.

From the traditional sense of the legal concept, the term merger is considered as the consolidation of two different business entities focused in transforming into one single business entity in the global market. At the same time, acquisition refers to the legal arrangement whereby any given organization controls the ownership of the equity interests, assets as well as stocks of the other business organization (Boschma and Hartog 2014). However, these  business movements both are deeply focused on the consolidation of the entire organizational assets, liabilities along with strategic activities.

In the context of working of merger and acquisition activities, one organization takes over another company or business body. This purchase can range from full to partial ownership of assets and liabilities. In this process, the two companies formulate another distinct and distinguishable enterprise, where the existence of the previous companies does not remain at all. There are two different kinds of merger and acquisition activities noted in the contemporary market (Cartwright and Cooper 2012). These classifications are called private and public merger and acquisition. The classification of the merger and acquisition activities greatly relies on the registration of the merging company or the acquiring company on the public stock market. Therefore, in these existing market environment the organizations use the merger and acquisition strategy as a value creation strategy.

The current examples in the existing marketing environment has identified that the market and acquisition can be parted in two different category which are friendly as well as hostile. The current study of the merger and acquisition has identified that achieving success has been proved to be highly difficult for the contemporary organizations. It has been observed from the current marketing study, that companies which are highly focused on the acquiring other companies in a chronological fashion, are greatly successful (Cartwright and Cooper 2014). On the other hand, the companies who have a tendency of acquiring companies occasionally mostly struggle to adjust with the external market environments.

Concept of Mergers and Acquisition

The organizations of the existing market have evolved the buyout scenario which has been proved to be most successful as well as realistic practices in the current market situation. In addition to that, the market has formed a form of buyout system known as ECO buyout which is deeply focused on buyout in regards to the co-community ownership as well as new generation buyout (Ferris et al. 2013). There are two distinct buyout systems which are known by MIBO and MEIBO. The approach of the merging and acquisition can be distinguished in two different parts, such as the friendly and hostile merger and acquisition. Both approaches of merger and acquisition depend on the intention of employees, shareholders as well as board of directors of the target companies.

Acquisitions and Mergers are mainly categorized in four broad categories based on the product and the market structure in which the acquirer and occupied company operates before the merger.

Straight merger:

Horizontal merger is said to take place when there are two firms operating in the same kind of trade and along the same environmental location as well. The most famous example of horizontal merger is the acquisition or merger of Times bank by or with HDFC Bank.

Upright Merger:

Vertical merger amalgamates the operability of a provider along with a purchaser. In the case of a backward upright merger, the customer acquires the provider. For example, RPG Group’s acquirement of Harrison Malayalam equipped it with a control over rubber, which in turn serves as a major input for another group of company. However, on the other hand, in the case of forward merger suppliers acquire the customers. This can be seen in the case of acquisition of Quest Apparels (manufacturer of denim jeans) by Arvind Mill (well-known manufacturer of denim fabrics).  

Concentric Merger:

A market/ knowledge extension merger takes place between two firms of similar category whose sales does not overlie but may get bigger by the geographical and manufactured goods market.

Conglomerate Merger:

Conglomerate merger takes place between firms, which are not related in business activities. The main purpose of amalgamation is to make proper use of financial resources, diversification of risk in association with a synergy of managerial functions.

There are a number of motives, which are associated with mergers and acquisitions. These motives range from economies of scale to managerial motives.

Differential Efficiency:

The theory of differential efficiency focuses on the differential efficiencies associated with different management of different organizations. Kolev et al. (2012) pointed out that there is a positive correlation between corporate efficiency at the managerial level and the sale price of dividends of that company. This clearly means that if a management of a company is poor, market price of shares of that company can definitely be low in comparison to the other companies of the same industry. This difference in share prices of the companies depicts that there is a chance of potential capital gain if the management of the company is transferred to a more efficient hand.

Types of Mergers

Inefficient Management:

The inefficient management theory is associated with differential efficiency theory. Takeover is considered as the effort exerted by the shareholders of the acquired company to control the management of the company. Sometimes, managers are faced with a problem of abandoning their existing strategies, even when these strategies are not effectively contributing to the growth process of the company. Whenever the need for restructuring is overlooked by the higher management, the capital market via the market for corporate control comes into action for the purpose of rescue (Krishnan and Masulis 2013). The target company’s shareholders pass on the control to the more competent management by taking over the market.

There are some other motives as well; these are operating synergy, pure diversification, agency problems, market power and so on.

The inclusive study on the topic of merger and acquisition has promoted that there are several competing theories which are highly influential for merger and acquisition. The most popular theories of merger and acquisition are disciplinary mergers theory as well as synergistic mergers theory.

1. Disciplinary Mergers Theory: The disciplinary mergers theory is highly focused with pursuing the objectives by the firm’s managers in the context of discipline target rather than focusing on the maximization of profit of the firm. There are recognizable numbers of managers who are focused on meeting the goals rather than focusing on profitability. However, on the contrary it has been also observed that efficiency of the operational practices can be affected by the difference of focus. Therefore, the disciplinary mergers theory can have a greater adverse effect on the performance of the company. The acquirers mostly notice that despite of the poor performance of the organization, whether they owns a profitable amount of assets or not (Galpin and Herndon 2014). After that, the acquirers are focused on disciplining the performance of the respective performance in order to implement their assets to gain the necessary profits. This way the acquiring management body transforms the poor companies’ performance into their full potential with a proper discipline. This kind of merger and acquisition activities is noted as disciplinary mergers theory.

2. Synergistic mergers theory: The synergistic mergers theory is highly focused on combining the target of both enterprises along with improving their whole performance in a collaborative fashion. The acquirers are well accounted of the necessary complementarities between the organizations target as well as business (Gomes et al. 2013). The marketing scholars as well as managers have successfully identified that target of the business can enhance their collaborative performance in order to gain a distinct edge in respect to the overall profits along with revenue generation. In addition to that, the combined assets as well as efforts can be highly effective to gain the necessary competitive advantages in order to thwart the rivals.

There are various researchers who have tried to investigate the reason of failure of merger and acquisition. As stated by Goyal and Joshi (2012) more than 50% of the merger and acquisition fails due to cultural differences. According to Halkos and Tzeremes (2013), there are various reasons behind the failure of merger and acquisitions.  They include economic fluctuations, incompatible facilities and technologies and cultural differences.  Success of integration depends on the significance paid by both the companies and the strategic fit in the pre-acquisition stage. However, it can be found that strategic fit is given more importance at the cost of organizational fit in the pre-combination stage of the merger. As stated by Holburn and Vanden Bergh (2014), it leads to unsatisfactory outcomes of mergers and acquisitions. According to Ishii and Xuan (2014), organizational fit can be described as the match between administrative practices and the personal practices to acquire the target organization.  On the other hand, strategic fit can be defined as the degree to which a target organization augments the acquirer’s strategy. Hence, it has significant impact on the non-financial and financial goals of the company. As acquisition requires combining various organizational activities, issues related with organizational requirements have to be considered. As stated by Mahesh and Prasad (2012), if during the period of acquisition, the organizational fits are considered then the outcome of merger or acquisition can be less effective. According to Park et al. (2013), integration can be focused as an important part that ensures success of merger. In the following paragraphs, the making and significance of HR integration has been discussed.

Integration between two companies can vary from total amalgamation to partial absorption or absolute independence of the main association. Thus, this description is determined that the level of integration straightly connects to the buying company’s objective. In most cases, integration takes place when two companies become a single new body on every stage (Goyaland Joshi 2012). In addition, it is possible that integration can be separated into some different parts and can be defined on precise levels.

Integration of people: This situation takes place when new employees and old employees have similar commercial culture and all the workers feel that they are a part of the organization.

Integration of systems: This situation takes place when all the employees are connected to single corporate system. It is also essential that the system is operating smoothly without disruption.

Integration of manufacture: This happens when construction processes are assimilated to expand an individual manufacture method.

After clarifying the meaning of integration, the important thing is to address an essential question, which is, “When does the procedure of integration actually begin?” As mentioned by Goyaland Joshi (2012), preparation for integration process starts when a target is being considered. He also mentions that there are five primary key elements of the process of integration known as strategic and financial objectives, transactions stage, transition stage and incorporation stage and evaluation (Halkos and Tzeremes2013).. It is evident that a firm’s approach to integration was based on two serious size of gaining.

In the contemporary market, the human resource management plays a very significant role in respect to the effective working of the merger and acquisition. In this context, the major processes which are included are assimilating employees of both acquired as well as merging companies into a merged entity (Phillips and Zhdanov 2013). There are two distinct sub processes of the entire HR integration process. The foremost sub process is highly focused on exercising culture developing, learning facilitation, new products training as well as communication. On the other hand, the second sub process is deeply concentrated on the organizational structure combination, service conditions, and reward system as well as employee relations. This particular process has effectively pointed out that most organizations failed to achieve success with the mergers and acquisitions business movement because of the negligible concern on the human resources factor of the strategic approach.

In the same context, the extensive study of merger and acquisition indicated there are vital ten success factors which are highly crucial for the growth of the organization at the time of merger and acquisition activities. These factors are classified into two different factors such as HR related factors as well as economic factors. The economic factors include search of acquisition, financial resources, due diligence, integration plan as well as synergies (Piesse et al. 2013). On the other hand, The HR related factors are management team, environment of learning, culture of the organization, communication as well as intellectual capital. In the current context, the most adverse effect of the merger and acquisition practices which has been identified is ‘Merger syndrome’. It is referred as the major reason of disappointing outcomes of the merger and acquisition. These adverse effects are personal preoccupation, rumor mongering, job performance distractions as well as psychosomatic reaction. These factors are highly handled by the Human Resource Management of the acquire organizations.

According to Angwin (2012), transition in the human resource management cannot be presented as an event. It should be represented as a process. There are tendifferent steps for completing a successful human resource transition. The steps are development  of proper plan for the integration project, performing the human resource due diligence review, analyzing and comparing the difference between the compensations and different values, comparing and contrasting beneficial strategies and analyzing the values, developing strategies for integrating the employees by providing more values, determining the leadership styles, addressing the duplicity in organizational operations, preparing proper communicational strategy for the employees, defining the data requirements of the transition and developing  employee retention strategy within the organization. Boschma and Hartog (2014) mentioned that quick decisions are important for the effective practices of the human resource transitions. It is extremely important to discuss the decisions regarding the transitions openly as group discussions. The effectiveness of the leadership style is the most vital factor of the human resource transition process. The time taken for the decision making and the way of communicating the decisions with the employees is the main fact behind the success of the whole transition process. The decisions should be applied immediately as per the requirement of the organization but have to be efficiently communicated and discussed with the employees in a convenient way. Contextual leadership style is able to build a community that can help develop a co-operative workforce within the organization (Cartwright and Cooper 2012). The leadership style must have to be supportive at the time of applying the transitions in the whole human resource management of an organization.

As Maksimovic et al. (2013) mentioned that, merger can reduce competition and provides the monopoly of power a company. With lesser competition and higher market share, a new organization can increase price for customers.  For example, there is a merger developed between British Airways and BMI. As stated by Gomes et al. (2013), this merger provided British Airways higher opportunity to attain greater percentage of flights departure to Heathrow and it provides higher scope for the company for increasing the base price. As stated by Ferris et al. (2013), merger can increase market monopoly and can lead to less choice for consumers. It is undesirable in any market condition. According to Phillips and Zhdanov (2013), merger can lead to job losses. As stated by Grant (2016), job losses can occur due to aggressive takeover done by an “asset stripping” organization. Sometimes it has been found that firms can merge in order to get rid of the under-performing sectors of the organization.

As mentioned by Alluru et al. (2016) the importance of mergers varies from one case to another. Depending on the case scenario, the cost and benefits of each merger can vary. The desirability of merger can be analyzed by its capability to reduce market competition and its significance to improve economies of scale for any industry.

As mentioned Alluru et al. (2016) the importance of mergers varies from one case to another. Depending on the case scenario, the cost and benefits of each merger can vary. The desirability of merger can be analyzed by its capability to reduce market competition and its significance to improve economies of scale for any industry. There are several important advantages and disadvantages of mergers which are discussed below.

Research and development

In some industries, it has become crucial to invest in research and development in order to discover new products. As mentioned by Lindsay and Berridge (2012) merger can enable a company to become more profitable. It also enables a company to gain greater funds that can be invested on research and development. According to Cheng and Seeger (2012), merger is important in industries like drug research    

Economies of sale

The major advantage of merger is that, it can give rise to potential economies of scale. As mentioned by Weber and Yedidia Tarba (2012), it is known as horizontal merger. According to Riad et al. (2012), horizontal scale can be quite extensive if the industry has high fixed cost. On the contrary, Kafouros and Forsans (2012) argued that, if merger becomes vertical, then the scope of economics becomes lower. 

Avoiding duplication

As stated by Reuer et al. (2012)  in some industries mergers can occur in order to avoid duplication. For example, two car making companies can compete in the same country.  

Regulation of monopoly 

Sometimes a company can gain market monopoly power from a merger. However, it does not mean that a company will increase the price of products if it is sufficiently regulated by the government. As Zhou and Li (2012) stated, most of the governments have developed price control policies to limit the increase of price of a specific product. Hence, companies can gain benefits from the economies of scale and consumers do not have to face monopoly of prices.

Higher price

As Maksimovic et al. (2013) mentioned, a merger can reduce competition and provide  monopoly of power to a company. With lesser competition and higher market share, a new organization can increase price for customers.  For example, there is a merger developed between British Airways and BMI. As stated by Gomes et al. (2013) this merger had provided British Airways higher percentage of flights leave to Heathrow and it provides higher scope for the company to set scope to set higher price. 

Less choice

As stated by Ferris et al. (2013)  merger can increase market monopoly and can lead to less choice for consumers. It is undesirable in any market condition.

Decreasing job options

According to Phillips and Zhdanov (2013), a merger can lead to job losses. As stated by Grant (2016), job losses can occur due to aggressive takeover done by an “asset stripping” organization. Sometimes it has been found that firms can merge in order to get rid of the under-performing sectors of the organization.

As Sakas et al. (2014) stated external factors are the events that take place outside a company. These factors are tough to predict and control. According to Jadvar and Colletti (2014), external factors can be more dangerous for a company given the fact that these factors are unpredictable. Some examples of external environment are such as economic fluctuations, competitive revelry, political factors, government regulations and the industry analysis. As Li and Liu (2014) mentioned, with the help of SWOT analysis and Porter’s 5 forces, the external environments of Daimler-Chrysler merger has been analyzed.

Power of buyers

Buyer’s power of the company was high as modern lifestyles had a propensity to live in convenience. As Wagner and Hollenbeck (2014) stated that, due to the increase recession care buyers have become more price-sensitive. They became more attracted towards eco-friendly cars to save money for diesel and petrol. As stated by Hill et al. (2014), consumers are a large portion of the industry’s output, and it is for this reason that the European car industry became environment conscious.

Power of suppliers

Supplier’s power for the automotive industry was low, as there were many suppliers in the car market of Europe.

Threat of new entrants

The threat of new entrants in the automotive industry was low, as the barrier of market entry was high due to the high requirement of financial resources for R&D, in order to make product differentiation.

Threat of product substitutions

The threat of product substitution for the company was medium. Europeans can substitute automobiles to other transportation such as Bicycles and Euro trains. As Pervaiz and Zafar (2014) stated, customers on longer distance travel often use low cost airlines and railways.

Competitive rivalry

As Cartwright (2012) stated that, competitive rivalry for the global automotive industry was high. There are various competitors such as AUDI, BMW, Toyota, Porsche, and Hyundai who are able to give tough competition to the Daimler-Chrysler merger.

Strengths

Daimler-Chrysler merger combines two strong companies. Gottlieb Daimler had established an engine car making company named as Mercedes-Benz. As stated by Maksimovic et al. (2013)  the Daimler-Chrysler merger had become a leader in innovation within 1 year of starting a business. Strong existing product brands of Mercedes and increasing market share of both strong companies helped the merger to gain record revenue in the form of unique and individual business entity.

Weakness

Daimler-Chrysler merger combined two different cultures. The management process of organizing, planning and controlling of the company Daimler-Benz was more efficient and safe. However, the management of company Chrysler is known for its risk taking approach. Daimler-Benz emphasized on design, quality and engineering and after sales service. On the other hand, Chrysler was more focused on developing high volume and low cost car manufacturing and product distribution (Pervaiz and Zafar2014).

Due to these contrasting cultures of these two merging organizations, employees became more confused and their job satisfaction level was also decreased. As stated by Zhou and Li (2012) , employers were leaving the company at a high rate, as they were not able to cope with the new organizational culture. It is harder for the new management team to inspire employees about the mission and vision of the organization. It has been found that, lack of governance is another weakness of the Daimler-Chrysler merger. As Hill et al. (2014) stated Juergen Schrempp and Bob Eaton did not follow a coordinated course of action during the phase of transition of the merger. It has been found that the low level of contact between two top managements decreased the efficiency of the Daimler-Chrysler merger. As Li and Liu (2014) mentioned, American dynamism faded under the subtle of German pressure. As Sakas et al. (2014) mentioned that a strong cultural and language barrier of US and Germany is the major weakness of the organization.

Opportunities

The Daimler-Chrysler merger had the opportunity to improve quality of production and engineering skills of employees. The company should have tried to look to increase distribution into the key markets of UK, Australia and Asian countries like India and China. The company also needed to look for new distribution channels to increase sales performance of the organization

Threats

The major threats of the company were that, it did not have an appropriate brand corporate identity, which decreased the brand loyalty of the company. As Phillips and Zhdanov (2013) stated, the amount of competition in the automotive industry had been increasing rapidly, as most of the car manufacturing companies increased investment on research and marketing of hybrid automotive. It was one of the major threats for the Daimler-Chrysler merger.

Political

As Li and Liu (2014) stated, it is the role of government to stimulate the car industry and yet impose control over the use of cars. It helps governments to develop an acceptable infrastructure and analyze the demand of car making industry among people of the country. It has been found that governments of most of the countries support car making companies, as they are a good source of job vacancy. The US government saves Chrysler with help of special Federal loan program (Cartwright 2012). As a renowned car making company, the Daimler-Chrysler merger has to face national government issues related with security policy and environment policy.

Economic

According to Phillips and Zhdanov (2013), during the time of merger, if organizations try to exist, they have to grow fast. Hence, the merger can become successful. The basic philosophy of merger is “eat or get eaten.” It has been found that price of cars in European countries are falling due to decline in the value of Euro. This price fluctuation increases the amount of merger and acquisition. As stated by Hill et al. (2014), due to the price fluctuation, Daimler-Chrysler merger had to face downfall in the sales. Increase of competition in the automotive industry and hike of the fuel price became obstacle for the success of the merger.

Social

As stated by Sakas et al. (2014), during the last century, cars have transformed the lifestyles of peoples in developing countries. It provides a new degree of freedom to people and new opportunities for work and leisure. Daimler-Chrysler had mainly positioned itself in three major automotive markets of Europe, North America and Asia. As stated by Cartwright (2012), rich population, who are quite fond of new car models composes these three markets. The company developed a large range of products that can attract peoples from all the societies.

Technological

Daimler-Chrysler had to take care about the technological changes that take place in the automotive industry in the last decade. The company had to invest a large amount of money in technology to take care of the environmental issues and to secure the customers as well. The company had to think about developing vehicles that run on bio-fuel or hybrid fuel. In order to become a sustainable and environment friendly organization, Daimler-Chrysler had to look to develop electric cars or bio-diesel cars.

In this section it has been discussed how the resources and capabilities of  two organizations  assist the merger to gain strategic advantage in the merger.

Marketing

The company Chrysler planned a market test that adequately revealed the value of the company Chrysler. It is known as sub rosa plan. The government of US asked the court to give permission to the company to be marketed with multiple bankruptcy claims. However, in the year of 2009, the US treasury and the US auto task force had rejected the stand-alone viability plan. The auto task force has announced to provide US $ 6 billion federal loan to the company Chrysler. In order to improve the financial condition, the company had made alliance with Mercedes. It was known as Daimler-Chrysler merger. During this merger the company Chrysler had restructured its debt and had to negotiate with the UAW and CAW unions in order decrease benefits of employees and to enhance productivity.

On the other hand, the marketing mix of the company Mercedes is one of the best. As stated by Pervaiz and Zafar (2014), Mercedes is recognized as one of the most recognized global automobile companies. Effective development of advertising and marketing strategies helps the company to become the leader of the competitive automobile industry. The company is currently producing a wide range of advanced cars, trucks, cars and buses. The company has manufacturing facilities all over the world. As stated by Li and Liu (2014) product is the strongest P in the marketing mix of company Mercedes. The company has developed this merger in order to gain higher market share globally.

Finance

The company Chrysler had to face a net loss of US$ 1.6 billion. The problem of the company continued till 2008 due to the declining sales (Hill et al. 2014). For this reason, in the year of 2008, General Manager of the company Chrysler started the discussion about the merger with Mercedes. In the year of 2008, it has been announced that the company requires US $4 billion in order to continue its operation. In the year of 2009, the company sought US $7 billion financial aid from the government of US. The main reason behind the merger for the company Chrysler was that the sales figure of the company is declined by 54%. On the other hand every product of Mercedes helped to meet the unique needs and requirements of individuals. Mercedes also introduced a flexible finance offering to improve the experience of customers. This finance was known as STAR finance. As stated by Cartwright (2012), it includes options such as bullet finance, step-down finance and step-up finance. It helps the company to improve its productivity and profitability continuously. When the company Mercedes merged with Chrysler it tries to implement STAR finance within the business operation of the new emerged company.   

Operation and logistics

Chrysler group developed a logistics operation plan to improve its business operation. The company has approached the Canadian Pacific Expressway division to use their new launched intermodal system that runs between Detroit and Montreal. The company developed a preliminary market study, for checking financial viability of the company’s logistics program. When the Daimler-Chrysler merger is developed, a small team was developed to investigate the delivery operations in the standpoint of Daimler-Chrysler. The company has used just-in-time approach. The company Chrysler has taken help from a just-in-time coordinator from a Mercedes plant located in Germany. The just-in-time coordinator works at Brampton as a part of the ongoing information program for the Daimler-Chrysler merger.

Human resource

The company Chrysler was an American multinational automaker company was first developed as the Chrysler Corporation in the year of 1925 (Pervaiz and Zafar2014). The company faced some issues related with productivity and profitability due to economic fluctuation during the year of 2007. While the company makes merger with Mercedes, the company has developed some major changes in the human resource management system.

The company has developed an effective development plan in order to attract more skilled and talented employees towards the company. As Cartwright (2012) mentioned the career planning process of the organization includes hiring planning and performance planning. The company has also developed various innovative activities that can help find out the skill, ability, experience and values of employees (Phillips and Zhdanov 2013).  It helps to improve self-awareness, self-concept and career improvement plan for employees. The newly merged company also took care of career management plan for all employees. As stated by Pervaiz and Zafar (2014), it includes employee development, training programs and seminars. The company also takes the help of podcasts, screen capture, seminars and online learning activity to improve the skill and knowledge level of employees. As stated by Li and Liu (2014) the company Mercedes hires employees from diverse cultures. The management of Mercedes provided empowerment to their employees; so that they could take their own decisions in critical conditions. The management of Mercedes prohibits any kind of discrimination. When Mercedes merged with Chrysler, it tries to bring all those ethical practices in the human resource department.

Outline Number

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Predecessors

1

Proposal for merger and acquisition for Daimler-Chrysler merger

165 days

Mon 6/27/16

Fri 2/10/17

 

1.1

   Evaluating the gains in mergers and acquisitions

30 days

Mon 6/27/16

Fri 8/5/16

 

1.1.1

      investigate the reason of failure of merger and acquisition

1 mon

Mon 6/27/16

Fri 7/22/16

 

1.1.2

      strategic fit is given more importance at the cost of organizational fit

10 days

Mon 7/25/16

Fri 8/5/16

3

1.2

   Integration of Merger and Acquisition

50 days

Mon 8/8/16

Fri 10/14/16

4

1.2.1

      Integration of people

15 days

Mon 8/8/16

Fri 8/26/16

4

1.2.2

      Integration of systems

15 days

Mon 8/29/16

Fri 9/16/16

6

1.2.3

      Integration of manufacturing methods

1 mon

Mon 9/19/16

Fri 10/14/16

7

1.3

   HR Integration of Merger and Acquisition

25 days

Mon 10/17/16

Fri 11/18/16

8

1.3.1

      assimilating employees of both acquired as well as merging companies into a merged entity

15 days

Mon 10/17/16

Fri 11/4/16

8

1.3.2

      exercising the culture developing, learning facilitation, new products training as well as communication

10 days

Mon 11/7/16

Fri 11/18/16

10

1.4

   HR Interventions in Mergers and Acquisitions:

8 days

Mon 11/21/16

Wed 11/30/16

11

1.4.1

      Implementing quick decisions for the effective practices of the human resource transitions

3 days

Mon 11/21/16

Wed 11/23/16

11

1.4.2

      Develop a co-operative workforce within the organization

5 days

Thu 11/24/16

Wed 11/30/16

13

1.5

   Implementing appropriate strategies

52 days

Thu 12/1/16

Fri 2/10/17

14

1.5.1

      Investing on Research and development

10 days

Thu 12/1/16

Wed 12/14/16

14

1.5.2

      Avoiding duplication

1 day

Thu 12/15/16

Thu 12/15/16

16

1.5.3

      Regulation of monopoly

1 day

Fri 12/16/16

Fri 12/16/16

17

1.5.4

      Analysis of the internal environments

10 days

Mon 12/19/16

Fri 12/30/16

18

1.5.5

      Implementation of the marketing plan

10 days

Mon 1/2/17

Fri 1/13/17

19

1.5.6

      Improving on the financial strategies

10 days

Mon 1/16/17

Fri 1/27/17

20

1.5.7

      Improving on the operation and logistics

10 days

Mon 1/30/17

Fri 2/10/17

21

Table 1: Proposal for implementation of Merger and acquisition strategies for Daimler-Chrysler merger

(Source: Created by author)

Daimler-Chrysler Merger acquisition

Daimler-Chrysler merger combined of two different cultures. The major differences of culture mostly regulated during the function team-orientation. Considering the management process of organizing, planning and controlling of the company, Daimler-Benz is more efficient and safe than the respective merger. However, the management of Chrysler is known for its risk taking approach. Daimler-Benz emphasizes on design, quality and engineering and after sales service. On the other hand, Chrysler is more focused on developing high volume and low cost car manufacturing and product distribution

Daimler-Chrysler had to take care about the technological changes that take place in the automotive industry in the last decade. The company should have invested a large amount of money in technology to take care of the environmental issues and to secure the customers as well. The company could think about developing vehicles that run on bio-fuel or hybrid fuel in order to become a sustainable and environment friendly organization. It can be said that, Daimler-Chrysler could focus to develop electric cars or bio-diesel cars.

If the organizations try to exist, they have to grow fast. Hence, the merger can become successful. The basic philosophy of merger is “eat or get eaten”. It has been found that price of cars in European countries are falling due to the fall off Euro. This price fluctuation increases the amount of merger and acquisition. Owing to the price fluctuation, Daimler-Chrysler merger had to face downfall in the sales. Increase of competition in the automotive industry and hike of the fuel price have become obstacle for the success of the merger.

From the traditional sense of legal concept the merger is considered as the consolidation of two different business entities which can be focused to transforming into one single business entity in the global market. At the same time, the acquisition refers to the legal arrangement where any given organization controls the ownership of the equity interests, assets as well as sticks of the other business organization. However, the respective two basic business movements both are deeply focused on the consolidation of the entire organizational assets, liabilities along with strategic activities. Moreover, the company should also be developing an effective change management plan in order to facilitate the merger and acquisition process for both the companies. The career planning process of the organization includes hiring planning, performance planning. The company also has developed various innovative activities that can help to find out the skill, ability, experience and values of employees.  It would be helpful in improving self-awareness, self-concept and career improvement plan for employees. The newly merged company also takes care of change management plan for all employees. The plan should include employee development, training programs and seminars. The company should also be taking help of podcasts, screen capture, seminars and online learning activity to improve the skill and knowledge level of employees. The company Mercedes hires employees from diverse cultures. The management of Mercedes should be providing empowerment to their employees; so that they can take their own decisions in critical conditions. The management of Mercedes prohibits any kind of discrimination. When Mercedes merges with Chrysler, it should be trying to bring all those ethical practices in the human resource department. Daimler-Chrysler has to take care about the technological changes that take place in the automotive industry in the future.

Conclusion

In this assignment, the importance of merger and acquisition has been discussed.  In order analyze the advantages and disadvantages of merger and acquisition the case study of Daimler-Chrysler has been selected. The desirability of merger can be analyzed by its capability to reduce market competition and its significance to improve economies of scale for any industry. Merger can enable a company to become more profitable. It also enables a company to gain greater funds that can be invested on research and development. It can give rise to potential economies of scale, which is known as horizontal merger. Horizontal scale can be quite extensive if the industry has high fixed cost. On the contrary, if a merger becomes vertical, then the scope of economics becomes lower.  In some industries, mergers can occur in order to avoid duplication which is applicable for two car making rival companies in the same country. It has been found that sometimes a company can gain market monopoly power from a merger. However, it does not mean that a company a higher the price of products if it is sufficiently regulated by the government.

There are some disadvantages of merger and acquisition which has also been discussed in this assignment. The major disadvantages of merger and acquisition are higher price, less choice, decreasing job options. Merger can reduce competition and provide monopoly of power to a company. With lesser competition and higher market share, a new organization can increase price for customers. Mergers can increase market monopoly and can lead to fewer choices for consumers. It is undesirable in any market condition. Mergers can lead to job losses. Job losses can occur due to aggressive takeover done by an “asset stripping” organization. Sometimes it has been found that firms can merge in order to get rid of the under-performing sectors of the organization.

In order to analyze the advantage and disadvantage of Daimler-Chrysler merger, an internal and external analysis has been done.  In the year of 1998 World’s two leading car manufacturer companies agreed to combine their business. They claimed it to be “merger of equals.” This merger provided a greater scope of formingthe large automobile company, which ranked third in terms of revenues. However, it has been found that the German and American styles of management differed drastically.  Merger and acquisition takes place in order to realize the synergies between two or more organizations. However, Daimler-Chrysler merger failed to understand the synergies that were expected from the merger. It has been found that cultures of two organizations differ highly. Chrysler encourages creativity while Daimler believes in methodical decision-making. There is a high disparity found in the company Chrysler. While Daimler-Benz dislikes huge pay disparities. Chrysler believes in flat structure while top-down management approach is used in Daimler-Benz Company. At first, German management granted Chrysler the freedom to do their work according to their will. They wanted to use the efficiency of Chrysler. However, majority of the key players left the company within 1 year and the remaining employees became demoralize and de-motivated.

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