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Discuss about the Determinants of, and Barriers to, Market Orientation and the Relationship with Business Performance Among SMEs.




The underlining term market orientation is the systematic framework with the help of which a specific business organization tends to focus on how the needs and demands of the customers can be fulfilled by using product mix. Argote (2012) opined that in order to maintain a rhythmic business flow every business organization has to follow a specific structure to keep systematic control over the entire business process. In this specific article “Determinants of, and barriers to, market orientation and the relationship with business performance among SMEs”, published by Dubihlela & Dhurup  (2015) the author has provided an in-depth overview about the importance of market orientation in enhancing the business performance level of small and medium enterprises.  In order to run a business organization successfully in the market, the business experts have to focus on market orientation and product innovation for fulfilling the needs and demands of customers. In case of small and medium enterprises the importance of effective business performance is highly important to create a demand in the market. This particular article has highlighted that SMEs sectors in the current scenario has widely faced an enormous economic growth due to which the business experts have shown their major concern on market orientation as well as product innovation. Argote (2012) stated that people belonging to different geographical markets are possessed with numerous needs and demands, Small and medium organizations have to get an in-depth overview about the needs and desires of the customers. The author in this specific article has highlighted that SMEs have to face several barriers in implementing market orientation within business process.

The lack of conducting market survey can be considered as one of the most effective barriers. Bloom, Sadun and Van Reenen (2012) commented that people belonging to different geographical markets are having various tastes regarding services. Therefore, before implementing market orientation strategy the business experts of SMEs have to focus on market analysis as well. As a result, the business experts would get an in-depth overview about the current market demand. On the other hand, in order to implement market orientation strategy the small and medium enterprises have to invest large amount of money based on which the organization would be able to fulfill the needs and demands of the customers. While implementing product innovation strategy, the business experts have to focus on maintaining well structure in every individual structure separately. Bock et al. (2012) stated that sales department, marketing department, production department and customer service department should focus on maintaining organizational structure properly so that the employees can maintain a balance between customers supply and demand.  Therefore, this specific article has primarily deals with the factors on hoe marketing orientation has a major impact in enhancing the needs and demands of customers belonging to different geographical sectors.

Place the Article within wider Subject Context:

In the article “Determinants of, and barriers to, market orientation and the relationship with business performance among SMEs” the author has opined that small and medium industry is possessed with two primary divisions including buying division and selling division in the marketing sector. Bock et al. (2012) stated that buying division primarily plays the responsibility of negotiating with the suppliers to make the availability of products (Burke, 2013). Business promotion and marketing the products to make a major threat in retail market is one of the most significant responsibilities of buying division. Making a merchandise plan to place the product to the doorstep of target customers is also one of the most important responsibilities of buying division. On the other hand, in selling division, the customer service executives have to play key role for convincing the customers and selling the products in various markets. As opined by Camisón and Villar-López (2014), providing quality products and services to the customers is not the only responsibility of business experts. While delivering the products to the customers, the customers service manager has to follow a hierarchy with the help of which product can be delivered systematically by maintaining customers’ expectation.        


As per the academic discipline or area every article should maintain several steps as well as tools. The tools include a suitable title, abstract, introduction, methods and materials, findings, discussions and analysis. In this particular article, “Determinants of, and barriers to, market orientation and the relationship with business performance among SMEs”, the author has maintained academic disciplines in a true sense. At the same time, this particular article is not devoid of some of the major drawbacks highlighted by some eminent contemporary scholars. Cummings and Worley (2014) opined that the author in this specific article has decided to focus on market orientation and its importance in business expansion. On the other hand, the article has dealt with the impact of market orientation on the small and medium enterprises. 

Strength and Weakness of the Suggested Improvement:


While selecting this specific article the author has clearly highlighted the research issue. After identifying the research issue the aims and objectives of the article has clearly been highlighted (Vaccaro et al., 2012).

While conducting the research methodology process the author has focused to deal with positivism philosophy for evaluating the necessary effects of organizational structure on market orientation. Gallistel (2013) stated that in order to use diversified products at the workplace and maintain market orientation, the business experts have to follow a suitable strategy to run the business process. With the help of positivism philosophy, the author has become dependent on repeated observation. The most effective strength of positivism philosophy is that the entire research process is based on repeated observation. This particular methodology is not cost effective (Sakagawa & Kajalo, 2016).

The implementation of market innovation model the author has decided to set the hypothesis. Deductive research approach is possessed with some of the positive aspects. While making this particular approach the author has dealt with some of the major case studies. Burke (2013) stated that the author had collected sufficient data on how a proper organizational structure has a positive impact in the market orientation. After evaluating major case studies, the author has received sufficient data and information about product mix, market innovation strategy.


Latent variables cannot be measured directly for accomplishing research work. For an instance, personality can be considered as latent variable. The data analyst by asking or forming some of the suitable and relevant questions cannot measure the personality of respondents. Camisón and Villar-López (2014) opined that the employees of retail sector can be the respondents while collecting data regarding the research issue. Therefore, data analyst with the help of Confirmatory factor analysis has to face challenges in judging the personality of employees by throwing some of the relevant questions related to the research topic.

On the other hand primary source of data collection technique has been used in this specific study. The primary source of data collection technique implies that both the data analysts and the participants can maintain a face to face communication by maintaining both qualitative and quantitative data collection procedure. Cummings and Worley (2014) stated that the primary strength of primary data collection procedure is that the feedback gathered from the respondents is immediate. As a result, the data analysts do not have to wait for a long time in order to collect data and information for accomplishing the entire research work properly.

Weakness of Article with Suggested Improvement:

The article has not focused to evaluate the factors that affect maintaining effective market orientation structure at the workplace. Among most of the significant factors, economic strength is one of the most prominent factors based on which most of the organizations prevailing in the retail sectors fail to maintain proper organizational sector (Ford & Richardson, 2013). Therefore, it can be suggested that while evaluating this particular article the author could have mentioned the foremost factors due to which business experts cannot maintain organizational structure effectively at the workplace.

In this specific article, the author has not mentioned the impact of market orientation and market innovation in enhancing the business performance of organization. In order to keep a control over the diversified products and services, the small and medium enterprises should maintain a proper hierarchy (Rummler & Brache, 2012). For an example, a proper organizational structure can help the company in providing good services to the customers. Therefore, it can be stated that the article should focus in highlighting the positive impacts of implementing proper organizational structure in the market orientation.


In the research methodology part, the author could have focused on using post positivism philosophy based on which data can be collected with proper observation. The author would not have to be dependent on observation only. On the other hand, Confirmatory factor analysis is not appropriate enough to collect sufficient data regarding the research topic. Gallistel (2013) opined that the actual data of the latent variables is not authentic as it is based on the biased comment. The entire article could be focused on secondary source of data analysis technique as well. Harper (2015) stated that thematic analysis is one of the most recognizable procedure of secondary method that allows a data analyst to make an effective comparative analysis form various resources such as journals, magazines, books, websites and so many. Along with maintaining Confirmatory factor analysis, the data analyst can focus on conducting secondary data collection process as well.

Reliability, Validity and Generalisability of the Findings of the Paper:


The factor of reliability implies whether the study that the author has conducted is having a same conclusion if this specific study is conducted by other author (Powell & DiMaggio, 2012). The importance of market orientation and its impact of business expansion is a broad topic. In this specific topic the author has collected data and information from primary resources. As a result, the data collection procedure is highly dependent on the response of the participants (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2013). Therefore, the conclusion may not be the same.


Before conducting the questionnaires, interview and sampling technique the data analyst tends to pre-test those questions in order to identify its validity. After preparing the questionnaires the data analysts do not directly apply those questions in the survey and interview procedure (Kark & Shamir, 2013). The business analysts would have to evaluate whether this particular questions are having validity or not.



The concept of generalisability implies whether the research findings are valuable for other organization, industry, countries as well as culture. While conducting a particular research work the aim of the researcher always remains not to be specific but to be general. The findings should not be restricted within specific group of people (MacKay, 2012). The entire research work should be conducted in such a way that various organizations, industries can use this article.


The entire study has provided in-depth overview about the relationship between market orientation and the performance of small and medium enterprises. While providing appropriate information, the author has mentioned the name of author with appropriate resource for maintaining the accurate source of data.  At the same time, it is undeniable that every research paper has to focus on providing the name of data collection resources. This particular article is not exceptional to that. In this specific article the author has focused to provide the data sources for maintain ethical consideration factors.

While making a relationship between measured variable and latent variable for hypothesis testing, the author has focused to collect accurate data without forcing any individual respondents. As per the ethical responsibility, the data analysts should never impose their own decision on the respondents while gathering data and information. In this article, the author has followed the same beliefs and virtues. The author did not force the respondents for providing their feedback regarding the research. The entire article and data collection method was highly dependent on the spontaneous response of participants. 



Argote, L. (2012). Organizational learning: Creating, retaining and transferring knowledge. Springer Science & Business Media.

Bloom, N., Sadun, R., & Van Reenen, J. (2012). The organization of firms across countries. The quarterly journal of economics, 127(4), 1663-1705.

Bock, A. J., Opsahl, T., George, G., & Gann, D. M. (2012). The effects of culture and structure on strategic flexibility during business model innovation.Journal of Management Studies, 49(2), 279-305.

Burke, W. W. (2013). Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications.

Camisón, C., & Villar-López, A. (2014). Organizational innovation as an enabler of technological innovation capabilities and firm performance. Journal of Business Research, 67(1), 2891-2902.

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Dubihlela, J., & Dhurup, M. R. (2015). Determinants Of, And Barriers To, Market Orientation And The Relationship With Business Performance Among SMES. Journal of Applied Business Research, 31(5), 1667

Ford, R. C., & Richardson, W. D. (2013). Ethical decision making: A review of the empirical literature. In Citation classics from the Journal of Business Ethics (pp. 19-44). Springer Netherlands.

Gallistel, C. R. (2013). The organization of action: A new synthesis. Psychology Press.

Harper, C. (2015). Organizations: Structures, processes and outcomes. Routledge.

Hatch, M. J., & Cunliffe, A. L. (2013). Organization theory: modern, symbolic and postmodern perspectives. Oxford university press.

Kark, R., & Shamir, B. (2013). The dual effect of transformational leadership: Priming relational and collective selves and further effects on followers. InTransformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition (pp. 77-101). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

MacKay, D. G. (2012). The organization of perception and action: A theory for language and other cognitive skills. Springer Science & Business Media.

Powell, W. W., & DiMaggio, P. J. (Eds.). (2012). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. University of Chicago Press.

Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P. (2012). Improving performance: How to manage the white space on the organization chart. John Wiley & Sons.

Sakagawa, Y., & Kajalo, S. (2016, July). The Effects Of Organizational Structure On Market Orientation And Innovation Orientation In Retailing. In 2016 Global Marketing Conference at Hong Kong (pp. 215-219).

Vaccaro, I. G., Jansen, J. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2012). Management innovation and leadership: The moderating role of organizational size. Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), 28-51.

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