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1. What is your TRC and how does your TRC compare to
a. The average for the data set (above, below or the same)?
b. The average for your sex?

2. How does the data set compare to the averages published by Holt (1968): 145 for males and 126 for females?

## Study on Finger Print Patterns of Male and Female Students

AIM- To calculate the finger prints pattern, and statistical significance of fingerprint pattern.

Protocol- Finger print patterns of 35 male and female patterns are listed with distribution of arch, loop and whole in each finger for each student. The total TRC count was also recorded for both sexes.

Objective- The objective is to find the existence of different pattern of finger print in two different sexes and how it differs from each other.

Table 2

 MALES FEMALES MALES AND FEMALES AVERAGE TRC 136 121.6 128.8 MEDIAN TRC 143 122 132 MODE TRC 124 100 125
1. My TRC is 166 (Student 10).
2. My TRC is above the average of the data set (128.8)
3. My TRC is above the average TRC of my sex which is 136 (average male TRC).
1. The average TRC for the data is 136 for males and 121.6 for females. The average TRC for males in the data set is less than the average published by Holt (1968). Similarly, the average TRC for females in the data set is less than the average published by Holt (1968). However, the data set demonstrates that males have more ridge counts than females.
1. Bin 120
2.    Bin 120
3.    Bin 120

TABLE 3

 MALES FEMALES MALE AND FEMALE ARCH% 5.71% 2.94% 4.32% LOOP % 63.43% 76.47% 69.95% Whorl % 30.86% 20.59% 25.73%
 FREQUENCY IN MALES FREQUENCY IN FEMALES Arch (1) 20 1 Loop (2) 202 25 Whorl (3) 128 8
1. No.

Generally, Arch fingerprints are the least and the loop are the majority.

1. Yes, because different people have different ridge counts.
 Male TRC Female TRC 84 84 124 115 66 140 125 180 163 158 144 100 141 103 179 173 133 92 166 85 121 150 187 170 127 179 167 157 61 121 161 69 165 137 147 114 65 122 167 123 67 141 124 45 143 105 153 137 164 73 139 132 80 100 134 131 152 125 166 125 187 118 149 99 136 162 109 89 164 102

MALE AND FEMALE COMBINED DATA SERIES

A SAMPLE OF DATA

The following fingerprint data were collected from 80 individuals participating in a workshop .The average TRC for the 19 males in the sample population was 149.2 and that for the females was 129.6. These results compare favourably with those reported by Holt (1968): 145 for males and 126 for females. The frequencies for the different fingerprint patterns for the 36 participants in the workshop also compared favourably with Holt's (1968) data from the general population:

Workshop participants         General population

Loop                           62.2 %                                  68.9 %

Whorl                          29.7 %                                  26.1 %

Arch                              8.1 %                                    5.0 %

Totals                           100 %                                     100%

Note: A table will be placed on the lab computer to collect all class data. Please enter data beside your name/sex. Ultimately your name will be removed before the data is made available for student use. This is so we can fix any anomalies in the data in a timely fashion should they arise in class. A XL file with data from students will be placed on vUWS so that the exercise can be completed. Use the data set assigned to you (this will be either by lab class or by surname – instructions will be provide on this via vUWS). Do NOT alter the data in any way.

TABLE 4. Data Sheet for your fingerprints left hand        thumb        2nd or index       3rd or middle      4th or ring     5th or little

Pattern            whorl             loop              arch                 arch             arch

Ridge count    11                  10                  0                       0                 0

Total = _21_________

prints

in

this

space

fold along dotted line fold along dotted line

right hand         thumb           2nd or index      3rd or middle      4th or ring       5th or little

Pattern           _loop___       _loop____          _loop_____        __arch____     _arch______

Ridge count   __14____      _13______         __11______       _0______         _0________

Total = _38_________

Place Prints in

this

space

fold along dotted line fold along dotted line                  TRC = __59_______

If you wish it may be easier to produce prints on a separate piece of paper, and cut and paste them into appropriate spaces above.

EXTEND YOUR UNDERSTANDING WITH ADDITIONAL TRC PROBLEMS

Total fingerprint ridge count exemplifies a polygenic inheritance pattern. Penrose (1969) and others have suggested that a minimum of seven gene loci contribute to TRC, but a four-locus model is hypothesized in the problems that follow. Thus, AABBCCDD represents the genotype for maximum ridge count and aabbccdd symbolizes the genotype for the minimum ridge count. Assume that each active (dominant) allele adds 12 ridges to the TRC of the male and 9 to the TRC of the female and that having the genotype aabbccdd produces a baseline TRC of 80 for males and 70 for females. (one answer is given below to clarify any issues with these instructions). You must also complete these questions for the assignment.

1. Predict the TRC for each of the following individuals.

## Total Ridge Count and Averages Comparison

Genotype                             Male                                              Female

AABBCCDD          _176____________                                _142_____________

AabbccDd               _104_____________                                _88______________

AaBBCcDD            _152____________                                _124_____________

aaBbCCDd             answer = 128                                            _106_____________

9a. Write the genotypes of both parents (the parental cross) who are heterozygous for all four genes (i.e. tetrahybrid cross). _P1=_AaBbCcDD______P2=AaBbCcDd_______________________________________

1. Write the genotype of the child (from the cross above in Question 9) who has the maximum number of active alleles possible. _AABBCCDD____________________________________________________________
1. What are the TRCs for the parents and their child above (assume that the child is a male)?

Parents: mother:  106                                Father:  128                                          TRC:  234

Male Child: TRC is 176

1. Calculate the probability that these parents (above) would produce a child with the minimum number of active alleles (i.e. all loci recessive). Show your calculations.

1/4 * ¼ * ¼ * ¼ = 1 over 256

10a. If an AaBbCcdd male mates with an AaBbCCDD female

1. What is the minimum number of ridge-producing alleles possible in one of their children? ____aabbCcDd_____________________________________________________________
2. What would be the TRC for this child if it is a male? _104______________________
3. What would be the TRC for this child if it is a female? _88_____________________
1. If this child is a male, will he have a higher or lower TRC than the parent with the lower ridge count?

The TRC of the male will be less than the parent with a lower ridge count.

1. What is the maximum number of ridge-producing alleles possible in a child of this couple? _AABBCCDd_= 7alleles________________________________________________
1. If this child is a female, will she have a higher or lower TRC than the parent with the higher ridge count?

The female child will have a higher TRC than the parent with the higher ridge count.

1. If an AaBBCcdd male mates with an AABbCcDd female,
1. What is the minimum number of active alleles possible in a child this couple could produce? __aabbCcdD_= 2 alleles________________________________________________________
1. What would be the probability of producing a child with the minimum number of active alleles?

Probability ½ * ½ * ¼ *1/2 = 1 over 32

1. What would be the TRC for this child if it were male? 80 + (2*12)= 104
1. What would be the TRC for this child if it were female? 70+ (2*9)= 88
1. In solving some problems above, you made some predictions of TRCs based on the genotypes of the individuals involved. Suppose we could measure the TRCs for some people with those genotypes and found the actual values to be different from those predicted by your calculations. How would you explain these discrepancies (think about multifactorial inheritance -you could consult your textbook and look in the chapter that covers quantitative genetics)?

Discrepancies within the results are caused by a variety of factors which may include booth environment and genetic influences. Multiple factors causing defects within traits are usually reformed to as multifactorial inheritance. Environmental factors can develop traits and defect like genes received from parents. Genetic factors that are received from parents include the influence of sustenance are examples of environmental factors that may cause the aforementioned defects.

References

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Galton, F. 1892. Finger prints. London: Macmillan and Company.

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Mendenhall, G., T. Mertens, and J. Hendrix. 1989. Fingerprint ridge count. American Biology Teacher, 51:203–207.

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Medical Center.]

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Nagy, A.S., and M. Pap. 2004. Comparative analysis of dermatoglyphic traits in Hungarian and Gypsy Populations. Human Biology 76(3):383-400.

Penrose, L.S. 1969. Dermatoglyphics. Scientific American, 221 (6), 72-83. Note there is something wrong with the page numbering with this article – it jumps from 84 to 79.

Reed, T. 1981. Dermatoglyphics in medicine: Problems and use in suspected chromosome abnormalities. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 8:411–429.

Reed, T. 1981. Review: Dermatoglyphics in medicine--problems and use in suspected chromosome abnormalities. American journal of Medical Genetics 8:411-429. 15 Genetics Laboratory 300845

Roberts, D. 1979. Dermatoglyphics and human genetics. Pages 475–494, in Dermatoglyphics – Fifty years later (W. Wertelecki and C. C. Plato, Editors). Birth Defects: Original Article Series, Vol. 15, No. 6, Alan R. Liss, New York, 800 pages. Russell, P.J. 2006. iGenetics a Mendelian approach -New York: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Schaumann, B., and M. Alter. 1976. Dermatoglyphics in medical disorders. Springer-Verlag, New York, 258 pages. Slatis, H. M., M. B. Katznelson, and B. Bonne-Tamir. l976. The inheritance of fingerprint patterns. American Journal of Human Genetics, 28:280–289.

Spence, M. A., R. C. Elston, K. K. Namboodiri, and W. S. Pollitzer. 1973. Evidence for a possible major gene effect in absolute finger ridge count. Human Heredity, 23:414–421.

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