Topic: Comparative Study Of The Relevance Between Conventional Concrete Non-Pressure Pipe And Coconut Shell Aggregate Concrete Non-Pressure Pipe.
Aim: To write a comprehensive research paper with a research plan based on extending the research outlined in the journal paper you have selected at the start of the course.
In undertaking this exercise, you must demonstrate the following:
- Technical knowledge of the research topic
- A review of the previous work in the field (a literature review in which at least 5 references which have been carefully analysed etc)
- A research plan including
- a research hypothesis,
- an outline of the planned methods to be used,
- the method of gaining and analysing the data,
- the statistical methods needed to prove your hypothesis,
- follow up research plan
Properties of Coconut Shell Aggregate Concrete
Concrete is one of the most adaptable building raw materials. With over 5 billion loads of concrete made yearly, it is well-thought-out to be the utmost significant construction material. As a result, the concrete production uses a sizable quantity of natural constituents. A portion of the wastes utilized as elements of concrete among them earth blocks, clay squanders, tire elastic squanders, marble quarry squanders, glass squanders, and reused totals. Coconut shell is the one of waste material which is gotten from scratched coconuts . Coconut shell is one of the rural wastes. Using the coconut shell as coarse total in cement is the new thought in the ongoing solid innovation to grow light weight concrete. The thickness of coconut shell total is not exactly the customary rock total. Thus the thickness property will be lesser for coconut shell total cement. Particular gravity is additionally the circuitous estimation of thickness all the solid fixings. From the investigated literary works the focuses were arrived. The density is shifting in same proportion for coconut shell aggregate from ordinary aggregate.
For concrete the density is differing in fifty rate varieties from coconut shell aggregate cement to conventional granite aggregate cement i.e. the coconut shell aggregate has a density of is 640 kg/m3 in compacted arrange while 530 kg/m3 in free stage. Conventional granite has a density of 1650 kg/m3 in compacted stage which changes to 1450 kg/m3 in free stage. The density of cement made from coconut shell total is 1670 kg/m3 while that of the cement made from conventional granite aggregate is 5950 kg/m3. Concrete of lesser density is the prerequisite in the construction industry to lessen the dead weight of the structure of a building and non-structural segments without antagonistically influencing the quality of a few structures .
Coconut shell aggregate has a specific gravity of 1.7 while that of conventional granite aggregate is 2.68.Biological disintegration isn't confirm even after the 365 days is displayed by a few specialists in the assessed explore articles and productions. This contemplated literary works center around the assurance of coconut shell aggregate cement properties to be specific general qualities, compatibilities, blend plan, mechanical properties and sturdiness properties. These every one of the properties were contrasted and the conventional granite aggregate cement.
Making of concrete is growing owing to extraordinary development of infrastructure and building works all over the world. Concrete is the lone material that can be effortlessly attuned for the substitution of common components likened to other building constituents [2-7]. As a result, concrete investigators are ongoing their exploration to substitute concrete ingredients from innumerable wastes from domestic, agricultural and industries. A case in point is the replacement of conventional concrete constituents with coconut shell concrete to manufacture of non-pressure concrete pipes.
Fairly enough discussion has been held by experts in line with the production of coconut in terms of the global as well as the local availability of coconut shell as well as it wide range of applications in various fields that were already documented in the preceding works of literature. Still, the manufacture method for coconut shell as one of the aggregates for cement, the mechanical and the physical characteristics alongside the technique to be adopted in the use of coconut shell as an aggregate in the manufacture of concrete had as well been extensively discussed and publications made thereafter .
Nonetheless, for the purposes of informing the readers some of the most important properties of coconut shell include the water absorption as well as the specific gravity where coconut shell has a water absorption capacity of 4.20% while the specific gravity is 24%. The specific gravity as well as the apparent specific gravity has been established to be 1.05-1.20 and 1.40-1.50 in that order, values that are relatively lower than the specific gravity of the contemporary aggregates. This means that, coconut shell is classified as a member of the lightweight concrete group should it be used as concrete .
A number of the wastes recycled as constituents of concrete such as ceramic wastes, marble quarry litters, glass litters, and reused aggregates. Coconut shell is among the unwanted material gotten from scraped coconuts. Using the coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete is an innovative concept in the current concrete expertise to make concrete. The density of coconut shell aggregate is fairly less equaled to the normal concrete aggregate . Hence, the density will be lesser for coconut shell aggregate concrete. Specific gravity is similarly the indirect measurement of density all the concrete ingredients.
Concrete pipes are categorized primarily as non-pressure pipe and pressure pipe. Non-pressure pipes are sub categorized more into two categories known as unreinforced concrete non-pressure and reinforced concrete non-pressure pipes . All, unreinforced and reinforced concrete pipes withstand a set pressure of 0.08 N/mm2 (8 m).
The flexural performance of RCC beam with coconut shell for two altered mix ratios and testified that No plane crack were perceived by Abinesh . This designates that there is upright connection among the ingredients and the experiment outcomes were closely to conventional granite aggregate concrete beam. He also demarcated the characteristics are substitutable for light weight aggregate concrete making with least strength of 35 N/mm2.
Recent studies ,  have revealed the Compressive strength of concrete by use of coconut shell as coarse aggregate for 100% substitutes and resolved that coconut concrete strength is lesser than conventional aggregate concrete due to reduced density and light load of coconut shell particles.
Coconut shell aggregate concrete has fulfilled the required strength of concrete after 28 days of curing with the utmost size of coconut shell as 10 mm in the physical characteristics has observed by Olanipekun E.A. et al, . The quantity of cement castoff is same when coconut shells are utilized as aggregates in the making of concrete likened to normal aggregate concrete to yield almost equal forte.
The coconut shell aggregate with conventional granite aggregate by mechanical and durability characteristics analysis as studied by Vishwas . He established that the coconut shell aggregate has great opposition in scrape, wear and tear, bearing and crushing analysis.
The use of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete in cement was studied by Rajeevanet al, (2015) and he made a conclusion that the coconut shell total cement compressive quality is influencing by the presents of flakiness impact of coconut shell total, by limiting the flakiness impact of coconut shell totals also, utilizing the coconut shell totals in concrete from the soaked surface dry condition the quality of coconut shell cement may increment .
Ranjith .R, (2017), made finding that the coconut shell aggregate concrete cement has fulfilled the outlined quality of cement following 28 days of relieving with the most extreme size of coconut shell as 10 mm in the mechanical properties. The measure of concrete substance utilized is same when coconut shells are utilized as a total in the creation of concrete contrasted with ordinary total cement to create around equivalent quality. To fulfill the criteria of auxiliary cement by preliminary blend 1 and 2, coconut shell requires the concrete substance of (450 and 400) kg/m3 in the generation of solid utilizing coconut shell as total The 28-day mean densities of coconut shell aggregate concrete (CSAC) were (1678 and 1758) kg/m3 in the two preliminary blend and these are not as much as the regular stone total cement (CGAC) thickness of (2325 and 2544) kg/m3 .
From these outcomes the coconut shell total cement is characterized as auxiliary lightweight concrete. The 28-day compressive quality of coconut shell total cement (CSAC) were (21 .33 and 17.73) N/mm2 for preliminary blend 1 and 2 and these are only not as much as conventional granite aggregate concrete (CGAC) quality of (31.87 and 26.40) N/mm2  .The flexural qualities of coconut shell total cement (CSAC) were (1.41 and 1.20) N/mm2 for two preliminary blends and relating traditional rock total solid quality were (1.19and 1.83) N/mm2.
Applications of Coconut Shell Aggregate Concrete
The flexural qualities of coconut shell total concrete (CSAC) are around (6.61 what's more, 6.77) % of its individual compressive qualities of (21.33and 17.73) N/mm2. The affect obstruction of coconut shell aggregate cement is having (8 blows) at the point when contrasted and conventional granite aggregate concrete (13 blows) for arrangement of starting breaks in preliminary blend - I. furthermore, CSAC (6 blows), CGAC (13) for introductory breaks in preliminary blend – II .
The research hypothesis here is illustrative of the manner of attaining and testing the hypothesis as well as the procedures use for proving the hypothesis of the research. The hypothesis of this research is that:
- Coconut shell aggregate cement has better properties that the conventional aggregate concrete cement in terms of the hydrostatic properties and water absorption.
The study will use three main methods in an attempt to prove the hypothesis of the research. The samples of pipes will be exposed to subsequent tests as per Australian standards such as hydrostatic, absorption and three-edge bearing tests. A hydrostatic test was used in establishing leakage when the pipe is subjected to an internal hydrostatic pressure. The test involved submerging the pipes in water for 6 hours and then a hydrostatic pressure applied on the entire pipe at a gradual rate until a pressure of 0.07N/mm2 was attained. The absorption test was meant to determine the absorption properties of coconut shell aggregate cement and encompassed drying the prepared specimens of pipes over an oven at an 110?C temperature for 36 hours and thereafter determining the dry mass of the specimen . The specimen were thereafter immersed in clean water for about 10 minutes, removed and then allowed to drain for a maximum of 60 seconds, the superficial water removed and the masses of the specimen taken immediately.
Some of the techniques that will be used in gaining data include:
- Direct observation: This would involve taking note of the various changes in the parameter measured including pressure and water absorption.
- Interviews: This would involve engaging on a one-on-one basis of the various stakeholders that are deemed to be probable data sources. Among those who may interviewed include laboratory technicians and professionals in the construction industry regarding their experience with coconut shell aggregate cement.
- Registration: This encompasses gathering of data through conducting license licensing of working construction industries.
The statistical methods of analyzing the findings from the three tests conducted on the aggregate of coconut shell will be dependent on the nature of the obtained results. Among the methods that will be adopted include;
- Mean, which would be ideal in the determination of the general trend of a set of data or otherwise offering a quick snapshot of the findings. The mean will be used in finding the averages of repeated tests for the same test procedure to aid in the establishment of a fairly common ground . The mean would be used in finding the average of the hydrostatic forces as shown in the equation below
Force 1) + (Force 2) + (Force 3)…+ (Force n)/n………………………….. Eq. 1
- Regressionis yet another statistical data analysis method that would be used for this study. It would aid in the determination of the nature of the correlation between the various parameters of variables that are under test. Regression would help in determining if there is a relationship between the water absorption properties and properties of resistance to hydrostatic pressure in the concrete pipes and establish the nature of such a correlation.
- Hypothesis testingis used in establishing whether or not a premise holds for the findings of a study as illustrated by the data. It would involve making a comparisons between the findings and the aforementioned hypothesis and would be perceived to be statistically significant if the results are established not have been able to occur by any random chance .
Mathematics based concepts, models and techniques form the bulk of the statistical methods that would be needed in providing a proof to the research hypothesis of this study. The research hypothesis can be achieved through the adoption of some of the mathematical concepts among them those that have been discussed above. Other models and computer software that are as well ideal for this study include MATLAB, AutoCAD that would aid in refining the data further.
The follow up study plan would aid in the production of knowledge on the selected phenomenon frequently and repetitively over a given period of time. This study will adopt such strategies as observation and interviews in a bid to enhance and ensure the effective of the research effort. Where need be, electronic forms will be as well adopted in achieving the research plan objectives and hypothesis and would be perceived to be statistically significant if the results are established not have been able to occur by any random chance .
The follow up study plan would aid in the production of knowledge on the selected phenomenon frequently and repetitively over a given period of time. This study will adopt such strategies as observation and interviews in a bid to enhance and ensure the effective of the research effort. Where need be, electronic forms will be as well adopted in achieved the research plan objectives.
The experiment outcomes in mentioned journals offer noteworthy accepting on elementary Material characteristics, Mechanical characteristics, and Stability characteristics, of coconut shell aggregate concrete while equaling standard granite aggregate concrete.
 Abinesh, R., Gunasekaran, K., Annadurai, R., Study on flexural behaviour of coconut shell concrete using Quarry dust, International Journals for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, Vol. 1 (11), pp. 426 – 432, June 2015.
 Amarnath, Yerramalaa, Ramachandrudu, C., Properties of concrete with coconut shells as aggregate replacement, International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Vol. 1 (6), pp. 21-31, Dec 2012.
 Ansari S, Joshi B. Comparative Analysis of Properties of Conventional Concrete & Light Weight Concrete Mixed With Brick Aggregate, 2017
 Daniel, Y., Performance of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete: a review, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2 (4), pp. 1096-1100, May 2013.
 Deepak TJ, Jalam AA, Loh E, Siow YT, Nair S, Panjehpour M. Prognostication of Concrete Characteristics with Coconut Shell as Coarse Aggregate Partial Percentile Replacement. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2015;1(5):45-50
 Ghosal S, Moulik SC. Use of coconut shell as an aggregate in concrete: A review. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4(9), pp. 476-7, 1, Sep 2015
 Kakade SA, Dhawale AW. Light weight aggregate concrete by using coconut shell. Int. J. Tech. Res. Appl. Vol. 3(3), pp. 127-129, May 2015
 Kambli PS, Mathapati SR. Application of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete: A technical review. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications. Vol. 4 (3), pp. 498-501, Mar 2014
 Kanojia A, Jain SK. Performance of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete. Construction and Building Materials. pp. 150-156, 1, June 2017
 Mo KH, Alengaram UJ, Jumaat MZ, Liu MY, Lim J. Assessing some durability properties of sustainable lightweight oil palm shell concrete incorporating slag and manufactured sand. Journal of Cleaner Production. pp. 763-70. 20, Jan 2016
 Olanipekun E.A. et al, –A comparative study of concrete properties using coconut shell and conventional aggregates as coarse aggregates, International Journal of Building and Environment 41, pp. 297–301.September 2006 https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.029
 Parag, S., Kambli, Sandhya, R., Application of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete: a technical review, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4 (3), pp. 498-501. 22, January 2014.
 Parag, S., Kambli, Sandhya, R., Compressive strength of concrete by using coconut shell, International Organization of Scientific Research Journal of Engineering, Vol. 4 (4), pp. 2278- 8719, August 2014.
 Prusty JK, Patro SK. Properties of fresh and hardened concrete using agro-waste as partial replacement of coarse aggregate–A review. Construction and Building Materials. pp. 101-13. 1, May 2015
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