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Diagnostic Model of Learning

Discuss about the Application of Diagnostic Model in Organization.

As per (McLean et al., 2013), the Diagnostic Model of Learning explains the formal learning which takes place within a workplace or at any university and can be conceptualized as an open system. In an open system, the inputs are changed or altered through learning processes and teaching for producing learning outcomes. By the help of feedback which is collected from external and internal environments, the organizations are able to modify their working process (Stuckey et al., 2014). A Diagnostic Model explains a holistic framework by the help of which, an individual can understand the inter-connection between the most important variables within a learning system. The main function of a Diagnostic Model is to provide a mechanism through which an organization can solve their problems which arise at that time when any types elements are changes within the system (Nonis, 2014). In this research paper, a clear description of the constructive alignment theory, Mezirow's hierarchy of learning outcomes and synthesis of open system theory has been provided. The paper provides three case studies which describe the importance of Diagnostic Model in improving the learning process within the management subjects in Australia, New Zealand, and Dubai. According to the researchers, an open system of learning is a system which consists of four major elements. These four elements are inputs, outputs, feedback, and processes. These elements are interrelated in such a manner that if any one of these elements is changed then the other three gets automatically changed. Few of the past researchers have critically reviewed the fact that the application of Diagnostic Model in learning becomes more effective and efficient when the teaching processes are flexible and responses in respect to the changes in the any of the main elements within the entire learning system. By the help of a Diagnostic Model any organization is able to design their decisions before starting of any teaching situation within the workplace. The Diagnostic Model also describes a conceptual framework, with the help of which any organization is able to adjust the information within their learning processes. In this research paper, the researchers describe the Diagnostic Model by considering the learning outcomes. These learning outcomes are explained by the Australian Qualification Framework (Fleming, 2016). It is defined as a set of skills and knowledge and the applications of skills and knowledge which is acquired by a person and also can demonstrate as an outcome of learning. Clarifying the planned and proposed learning outcomes is a most important cognitive process in the stage of decision making about how to assess and how to teach. According to the transformative learning theory of Mezirow, different types of learning activities have been designed to keep the students engaged in the different levels of the learning hierarchy (Hodge, 2014). According to this Mezirow’s learning hierarchy, the 1st level of learning suggests those practical activities which help to develop the working skills. The 2nd level of learning is communicative learning which suggests that those discussions and discursive activities which are basically designed to understand the fact which is meant by others and the 3rd level of the learning is emancipatory learning which suggests that the individuals are changing or altering their basic frame of reference (Illeris, 2014). By analyzing these levels of learning, it can be said that education is not just the gaining or acquiring of information, it is all about a conceptual change. For this reason, in different levels of learning outcomes, it requires different types of learning activities which absolutely differ in the process, duration and content. The system theory explains a holistic view of learning design in aligning the teaching practices, assessment tasks and learning activities along with the proposed learning outcomes.

Open System Theory in Diagnostic Model

The Bolman and Deal model of learning an organization help to understand the workplace of an organization by using the Four Frame Model. This Four Frame Model is consists of 1) Structure i.e. machines or factories, 2) Human Resources i.e. family, 3) Politics i.e. jungle and 4) Symbols i.e. temples, carnivals or theatres. This model started a new series on Psycholawlogy for understanding the organizations. A team of science scholars has developed this Four Frame Model of Bolman and Deal (Demil & Lecocq, 2014). This model helps everybody to understand the complexity and ambiguity which influence the organizational behavior. By the help of this Four Frame Model of Bolman and Deal, anybody is able to understand those issues which are approached at the time of organizational diagnosis, change, and development. The researchers have combined the social science and management wisdom for doing their research works from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, anthropology and political science within a model which help the people to view an organization in four images - 1) Structure i.e. machines or factories, 2) Human Resources i.e. family, 3) Politics i.e. jungle and 4) Symbols i.e. temples, carnivals or theatres (Smither et al., 2016). Each frame associates with a mental model. Each frame within this model contains several assumptions and ideas, by the help of which any organization is able to understand that how should they assemble and register that collected information into a logical and rational pattern. This pattern helps the organizational members to decode and interpret those clues by obtaining more clear and comprehensive picture about the fact that what is happening within the organization and what to do to overcome the issues or critical situations which arise within the organization. The design of this Four Frame Model of Bolman and Deal basically depends on multi-frame application and thinking. Each frame consists of an important image of the organizational life.


The Open System Model is mainly discovered in the book of Worley and Cummings, named as “Organization Development and Change” (Cummings & Worley, 2014). It is described based on the Open Systems Theory. This Open System Model is basically explaining the relationships between the organization and their external and internal environments. By the help of this model, any organization is able to modify their working process. An Open System Model is a model by the help of which any organization is able to exchange the feedbacks along with their external environments. In an open system, the organizational inputs, outputs, processes, evaluation and assessment, goals and learning all are the most important elements. An Open System Model becomes effective when the organization continuously exchanges their feedbacks along with their external environment and also analyzes those feedbacks which are required to adjust to the internal environment of that particular organization for achieving the goals of the organization. Every system has boundaries (Chesbrough, 2013). An open system has porous boundaries or borders through which the organization can easily exchange their useful feedbacks and also able to understand the derived information. An open system is a system which mainly consists of four major elements. These four elements are inputs, outputs, feedback, and processes. These elements are inter-related with each other in such a manner that if any one of these elements is changed then the other three also getting changed. The Open System Model becomes more effective and efficient when the processes are flexible and response in respect to the changes in any of the main elements within the entire system. By the help of an Open System Model any organization is able to design their decisions before starting of any teaching situation within the workplace.

Constructive Alignment Theory

By analyzing these two models, it can be said that the Four Frame Model of Bolman and Deal is a better model which is used for diagnosing the Stress buster organization. By the help of this model an organization is able to diagnose their each frame more specifically. Stress buster helps us to learn the causes of stress at the workplace and its effects on the organizational members and organization. by the help of the Four Frame Model of Bolman and Deal anybody is able to identify that particular area within the workplace where the stress arises and also identify the reason behind this occurrence of stress. After identifying the issue, the organization can easily solve that problem by making some changes into their work process. This helps the organization to run their business process effectively, efficiently and successfully. Each frame within this model contains several assumptions and ideas, by the help of which any organization is able to understand that how should they assemble and register that collected information into a logical and rational pattern. By the help of this Four Frame Model of Bolman and Deal, anybody is able to understand those issues which are approached at the time of organizational diagnosis, change, and development.


An open system model is the best diagnosis model for any organization. In an open system model an organization has exchanged their feedbacks along with their external environments. By the help of this open system, an organization is able to maintain the relationship between the organization and their external environment (Burke & Noumair, 2015). Inputs, outputs, feedback, and processes are the four most important elements in an open system. By the help of these elements, an organization can easily determine the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and modify their working process. Before implement open system within an organizational process, the organization has to analyze their external environment effectively. At the time of analyzing the external environment, the organization can easily able to detect their strength, weakness, opportunities and threats within the market or environment  (Meijer et al., 2016). An Open System Model becomes effective when the organization continuously exchanges their feedbacks along with their external environment and also analyzes those feedbacks which are required to adjust to the internal environment of that particular organization for achieving the goals of the organization. Nowadays, the clients and the stakeholders are learned to recognize the different processes and parts of the organization. So, it is very important for the organization to maintain a good relationship with their external environment. An open system has porous boundaries or borders through which the organization can easily exchange their useful feedbacks and also able to understand the derived information (Shanji, 2016). The Open System Model becomes more effective and efficient when the processes are flexible and response in respect to the changes in any of the main elements within the entire system. By the help of an Open System Model any organization is able to design their decisions before starting of any teaching situation within the workplace.

Mezirow's Hierarchy of Learning Outcomes

This open system model is a general model which guides the diagnosis process of whole institutional sectors, individual organizations, sets of the organization, or any units or divisions within the organization. The inputs of an organization consist of the raw materials, equipment, people, money and natural resources (Anderson, 2013). The outputs of an organization are consists of products, services, and those innovative ideas. This open system model also helps the organization to maintain their organizational process and organizational behavior and improve the existing patterns of interaction within the organizational members. The organizations who adopt open system model within their organizations are always ready to accept and incorporate the advanced technology within their organizational process. By analyzing the external environment, the organization is also able to determine their current situation and position of their organization within the market. This open system also diagnosis the structure of that particular organization and help the organization to improve the relationship within the organizational members and the relationship between the organization and their external environment.


The main function of a Diagnostic Model is to provide a mechanism through which an organization is able to solve their problems which arise at that time when any types elements are changes within the system. By the help of this open system model, an organization is able to adjust their information within their organizational processes which are collected from the external environment. The feedback of this information is very important within and outside the organization to run the organization successfully. The open system model implies many important ideas for diagnosis the organizational process. Any organizational system is consists of many interdependent components. When any types of issues arise within the organizational functions or interdependent components, the effectiveness suffers and ineffectiveness appeared. The success and effectiveness of an organization totally depend on the ability of the organization the ability of the organization to adopt the environmental changes within their organizational process and to find an encouraging and good environment in which the organization can effectively and successfully operate their organizational process. Human resource is the most important resource within an open system model. Developments and improvements inside and outside the organization always create pressures on the organization for accepting the changes to maintain the sustainability of the organization within the environment. The effectiveness of an organization also depends on the ability of the organization to meet the requirements of their internal system. By the help of the external environment analysis, the organization is also able to determine their current situation and position of their organization within the market.

References

Fleming, T. (2016). Toward a Living Theory of Transformative Learning: Going beyond Mezirow and Habermas to Honneth1.

Hodge, S. (2014). Transformative learning as an “inter-practice” phenomenon. Adult Education Quarterly, 0741713613520405.

Illeris, K. (2014). Transformative learning and identity. Journal of Transformative Education, 1541344614548423.

McLean, P., Pio, E., & Jayashree, P. (2013). A diagnostic model of learning: three case studies.

Nonis, S. A. (2014). CREATING TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING EXPERIENCES FOR STUDENTS IN A BASIC INTERNATIONAL MARKETING COURSE. Patrick D. Fountain, 114.

Stuckey, H. L., Taylor, E. W., & Cranton, P. (2014). Developing a survey of transformative learning outcomes and processes based on theoretical principles. Journal of Transformative Education, 1541344614540335.

Anderson, D. L. (2013). Organization development: The process of leading organizational change. Sage Publications.

Burke, W. W., & Noumair, D. A. (2015). Organization development: A process of learning and changing. FT Press.

Chesbrough, H. (2013). Open business models: How to thrive in the new innovation landscape. Harvard Business Press.

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Demil, B., & Lecocq, X. (2014). ? The Rise and Fall of an Open Business Model?. Revue d'économie industrielle, (2), 85-113.

Meijer, M. J., Kuijpers, M., Boei, F., Vrieling, E., & Geijsel, F. (2016). Professional development of teacher-educators towards transformative learning. Professional Development in Education, 1-22.

Shanji, Y. A. O. (2016). Driving Impact of Intellectual Capital on Customer Participation: From the Perspective of Transformative Learning. Journal of Management, 2, 008.

Smither, R., Houston, J., & McIntire, S. (2016). Organization development: Strategies for changing environments. Routledge.

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