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Identify the necessity of having organizational policies & procedures.

Understand the differences between policies & procedures.

Understand the link between organization's values and its policies & procedures.

Learn the process of writing effective policies & procedures.

Policy development is one of the important facts and includes several steps to implement a policy. Steps are as below:

Issue identification: Issue identification is essential to make the policy, and the organization must need to understand which issue needs to be resolved by modification or creation of a policy.

Appointing the persons or board: Policy development procedure is the long-term process and to maintain the process systematically appointing a board, or some persons is essential.

Setting the policy development process: This step is essential for the development of the policy where board need to develop a plan, conduct research and prepare the whole chart of which steps are needed to be taken first (Hill & Varone, 2014).

Research: This includes a research process of evaluating the policy of other company, internet research, evaluating the participants and much more to judge the effectiveness of the policy.

Consultation: This stage includes consulting the discussion paper with all the stakeholders and gains the review or feedback from them regarding the policy.

Preparing draft: In this stage, a draft has been made as a first step towards the preparing the policy by evaluating the consultation process (Oleszek,2014).

Consultation stage 2: After preparing the draft it is mandatory to share it with the stakeholders and take the review from them for better understanding.

Adaptation: after evaluating all the factors and terms when board get the satisfaction then it is the perfect time to finalize the policy

Communication: After finalizing the policy it is necessary to build a suitable communication with the organization’s all members, proper training can also be formulated to understand and implementing the policy.

Monitoring: After implementation, proper monitoring needs to be formulated to judge the future step.

  1. B) Explain the operation of policy cycles:

Setting the policy agenda: the First component of the policy cycle is setting a policy agenda regarding which resource company have, which need to manage which need to give the priority and many more. This is the basic process of formulating requirements and finding the source to meet it.

Writing policy: Demonstrate the policy in a clean, simple and clear manner to make it simple for the organization.

Implementing policy: Implementing the policy is the important part because basically, people think that policy is made to restrict (Holmes, 2015). in order to mitigate this proper clear presentation is needed and should have to provide sufficient time to understand the policy.

Enforcing policy:  After the implementation of the policy and determine all the factors and review, feedback policy has been enforcing.

Reviewing and Updating Policy: After the enforcement, it is necessary to review the policy every time because sometimes after implementing the policy it becomes diversely affected the organization (Sheldon, 2016). Proper review needs to be done to maintain the policy systematically.

  1. C) Describe how to use analytical policy development frameworks

An analytical framework is a process to develop the policy within an organization. It has five steps structure through which whole the policy development process goes through. The first step is to realize the need for the policy. It is the basic step that needs to be taken after identifying the issue. Next step is the planning. Policymaking procedure is time-consuming and complicated. In order to develop a proper policy clean and clear planning is needed. The very next step is the implementation of the policy. This is the vital step of the analytical framework because before implementing, various steps need to be followed such as understanding the policy, make aware about the policy, proper training of the authority to understand rules and regulation. Implementing policy is also time-consuming because numerous stages are there and proper, flexible decision must need to be taken to implement any policy because lots of variables depend on a single policy (Valls et al. 2016). Not all the policy helps to mitigate the situation sometime reverse reaction can also happen. After implementing, another important step is the evaluation of the policy. Evaluation stages are also important because it reveals the importance and effectiveness of the new policy and also shows the whole activity of the policy. The review is the last part that needs to be taken from the employees and authority of the organization about the effectiveness of the policy. Review stage reflects the actual nature of the policy, is it helpful or not. This basic five components of the analytical framework complete the whole process of the policy-making and also reveals the importance of the newly made policy.

  1. Identify the role of the existing Policies and Procedures underpinning the work area and how they relate to identifying area for policy development or review.

Existing policies and the procedure can be stated as the main regulating structure of an organization. Existing policies help to organize the conflict situation not only that also guides the company and employees how to interpret with the organization. Policy maybe of different types and all the policy helps to lead the organization in a systematic manner. Sometimes new issues arise and existing policies are not suitable to mitigate the issue. For example, if employee turnover occurs in an organization, then the company needs to rebuild or develop the existing policies to retain the employees and also need to develop the exact procedures how to retain the employee to meet the policy. In this type of situation, development of the new policy is needed and for this review and evaluation need to be done. Development of the new policy can be done after evaluating the existing policy, and existing policy always guides the authority to develop the new policy. Existing policy reveals the area for which policymaking is needed through the dissolution of the existing rules (Boarnet et al. 2017). When an existing policy and procedures are not able to cooperate with the situation, then it automatically demanded the development of the new policy and also determined the area of research to prepare the new rules.

  1. List five legislations/regulations on which policies and procedures should be based?

Five legislations on which policies and procedures should be based are as follow:

  1. a) Healthy and safety act
  2. b) Equal opportunity act
  3. c) Employee code of conduct act
  4. d) Anti-discrimination and harassment act
  5. e) Employee disciplinary act

For this project, the chosen company is Marks & Spencer(M&S) which the multinational retail company of the united states and have many branches all over the world.

1) Describe the organization current situations including internal and external factors, issues, events, and business directions.

 Marks & Spencer is the largest brand in the UK and has the popularity among the customers. Internal factors like their product lifecycle are 3 to 5 years, and high price sometimes creates problems between the customers. However, the company has the strong market position and variety of products still various issue like employee dissatisfaction, job security, products quality sometimes affect the company in a large manner. External factor like changing the tax structure, health act affect the company in a various time interval.

 Issues facing the company is the environment of the stores and lack of proper training of employees to operate the stores. Several issues are notified against the Marks & Spencer regarding the environment of the stores as a few days ago a chair broke down and a lady got a severe injury, and in another store, a small disabled kid was injured by a broken piece of glass found in the floor. Several issues also brought into notice like bad behaviour of the employees like discriminating black people in the UK, offensive and unnecessary shouting on few women and kid and also few employees left the company due to unequal justice and unequal resource distribution because they belonged from the other culture and moved to the rival TESCO ("Welcome to Marks & Spencer", 2018). Several events regarding employees training have been taken and also some measures to remove the harmful environment have been taken. Marks & Spencer is now going to launch the new training procedure and also wants to remove the barriers in stores to increase the sales by providing the secure atmosphere to the customers.

  1. Explain how the Access and Equity Policy and Procedure are important to the business and its clients.

Access and Equity Policy is the most important policy for the company because this is the main policy to promote the equality in the business and also to facilitate the just work environment. Above-mentioned issues like misbehaviour of the employees on black people and uncertain injury of a disabled kid can be minimised by developing the new Access and Equity Policy. Access and Equity Policy includes various steps to remove the barriers in the workplace and promote fair and equal distribution of the resources (Dunn,2015). The issue regarding the social discrimination and unequal justice also decrease the image of the company and client also got discouraged due to sales decrease. Access and Equity Policy helps to secure the organization from the legal harassment of the government. This policy and procedures push the company to increase the level of their business by providing equal justice and maintain the value of the customers. Employees satisfaction can also be met by the Access and Equity Policy by facilitating proper distribution of facilities.

  1. Conduct critical analysis of the need for Access and Equity Policy and Procedure development against the internal and external environment.

Access and Equity Policy is important to minimise the internal and external factors of the M&S Company. Access and Equity Policy reveals the fare participations of the customers and also spreading the equal justice in the workplace. In M&S several internal and external issues are notified. Misbehave with the black women is the main issue which needs to mitigate and for this implementing the Access and Equity Policy is essentials. Unpredictable injury of a disable kid and a woman also reveal the arbitrary situation of the stores and to minimise the issue development of the Access, and Equity Policy is needed because this policy reveals the secure and safe participation in the business (Walsh,2017). Unequal justice and resource distribution among the employees are also demanded the development of Access and Equity Policy to generate the proper resource distribution and equal justice ignoring the background of the employees. All these internal and external factors and a disturbed situation in the stores and company reflects the need for the Access and Equity Policy and company is also determined to facilitate proper policy to minimize the situation.

  1. What are the priority areas for this policy development?

The main priority area of this policy development is to promote the proper workplace environment with safety, security, and proper training of the employees to behave properly with the customers ignoring the background, cultures, racism, and age, gender. All these areas need to sort out to facilitate the business properly and Access and Equity Policy is the main policy they must need to develop.

  • Proper training of the employees
  • Facilitating the equal justice in the company
  • Improving workplace environment to ensure the safe participation of the customers.
  • Providing justice by ignoring the gender, caste, racism.
  1. Identify and analyze risks of the issues likely to impact if this Policy and Procedure is not in place.

If this policy is not in place, the numbers of factors can arise which can impact the business. Continuous discrimination and injustice with the black people can hamper the company in the society, and government interference can occur which is not predictable for the company, and also company can lose their brand image in the market. An improper workplace can cause many other injuries to the customers, which can even force the government to close the stores of the M&S. Continuous employee turnover in the ground of culture discrimination can also hamper the workplace image, and new recruitment will be hampered. Sales of the company can also go down due to this congested condition of the company.

  1. Outline the policy development requirements in a policy development plan.





(Description of action)

(action owner)

(completion date)

Measurable target

Introduction of the access and equity policy and discussion of issues facing  by the company and need of the development of the policy.

Compliance officer

April 17

Staff will understand the issues and policy ti incorporate with it.

Develop a proper training regarding avoiding the discrimination on the ground of racism and facilitating proper guidelines to understand the access and equity policy.

Compliance officer

April 25

Employees will understand the access and equity policy and will avoid the discrimination on the ground of racism in future.

Facilitating proper training regarding on job behavior of the employees to promote the access and equity policy

Store manager

May 30

Employee will get the information about the on job activities within the store.

  1. Conduct a group consultation to analyze information for policy.

The consultation process is very much important for the company to develop the policy because through the consultation process information are gathered for the policy. There are few steps of consultation such as:

Development: In this stage the board who is engaged to direct the policy, identify the need for the policy. In this case, the issues are the main reason to develop the policy and identification of the issues are done from the public review, evaluation and many more.

Steps of policy development

Preliminary consultation: In this process, the board has submitted the draft of the policy to the groups confidentially and discussion regarding the policy occurred.

Review: In this step, all the information gathered is reviewed thoroughly to understand the issues.

Taking the review from the group member: After discussion of the draft policy, the individual review has been taken to understand the need and requirement of the policy.

Taking the decision: After the consultation of all the reviews and regulation of the policy, the final decision has been made to mitigate the issue with a critical analysis of all the information and future aspect of the policy.

8) Document source of information required to support the policy development

In order to develop the policy proper document source is needed. Document source is of various types such as public review, journal review, internal review, report review and many more. In Marks and Spencer, the issues which are brought into account and for which development of the policy has been initiated, public review are the main source of this issues. Review from the public and various newspaper and journal review reveals that some disorder happened in the stores and within the organization. All these sources demanded the development of the policy to mitigate the issues and for proper justification.

  1. Draw up an analytical framework for the development of the policy

10: What are the policy options and the key points to be addressed in the policy and procedure?

Policy option:

  1. a) The main policy option is to facilitate the equality and justice in the workplace.
  2. b) Increasing awareness regarding the discrimination on the ground of racism, sexual harassment, culture, age, gender and many more.
  3. c) Providing safe participation of the customers.
  4. d) Increase the sustainability level of the company.

Key points:

  1. a) Free participation of employees in the organization.
  2. b) Mitigating the discrimination on the ground of racism.
  3. c) Organizing proper and safe workplace .
  4. d) Accelerating the growth of the company by facilitating the policy.
  1. How do you communicate and promote the policy options?

Communicating and promoting the policy is one of the important parts of the development the final policy and implementing the policy. In order to communicate and promote the policy company can share the draft with their stakeholders and other important people of the M&S company. Internet access is another best way to get the review of the policy. Uploading the policy brief on the company’s website can be effective, writing blog regarding the research and policy is another viable solution to communicate and promote the policy

  1. Explain the risk treatments according to the policy development plan.

Risk treatment is the process of identification of the risk and selecting the risk that are not acceptable (Çifci et al., 2016). In the policy development plan there are several risks that need to be treated seriously and for this an action plan can be measured as below.

Risk identification


Risk treatment

Risk owner

Resolved date

Discrimination in the store on the ground of racism


Ø Identification of the cause of the issue.

Ø Identification of the training to manage.

Ø Proper review of the training.

Store’s employees

25th april

Employee turnover due to unequal distribution of the resource because of different culture.


Ø Identification of the cause of the issue.

Ø Implementing the policy and raise the awareness about the legislation.

Human resource authority.

17th may

  1. Explain the policy development approvals/endorsements procedures

In this approval procedure, three steps are there such as:

Prepared approval form: document manager who is responsible for preparing the document, completes the approval form, and then release it to the higher responsible officer including the final draft for their signature and review.

Analytical framework to develop policies within an organization

Submission for the approval: After getting the draft and form responsible officer signed the form and sent a partial approval form to the approver (Tomczak, Reinecke & Kuss,2018).

Post-approval: responsible officer inspects the whole procedure of draft and the signed approval form and ensures that the approval form and draft are sent to the higher authority and document manager.

  1. Draft the Access and Equity Policy and Procedure

 Draft of access and equity policy:

  • Improving free participation of the customers.
  • Remove discrimination on the ground of age, gender, culture, racism.
  • Remove inequality within the organization.
  • Person with disability may also included in this policy to promote the social and health promotion
  • All the customers must be treated fairly and professionally.
  • All the trainers are responsible to promote the quality training and proper supervision.
  • Violence of Access and equity policy must be treated according to the policy‘s regulation.
  • Facilitating proper training for the employees.
  • Organising proper workplace in the store.
  • Proper evaluation within perfect time interval.
  1. Consult with 3 colleagues (your classmates) to determine whether any amendment is required.

1st classmate: According to him policy is fine and viable, and it will help the company to promote the equity and fair treatment.

2nd classmate: According to him some rules need to make for those who will break the policy. This will help the company to maintain the policy.

3rd classmate: Including disable person in the policy can hamper the safety and healthy issue. It needs to be amended.

  1. Implement risk management to ensure policy development progress meet the timeframe

Risk management is important in the development of a policy. In order to implement the risk management few steps are:

Identifying risk: Identify and evaluate the risk is most important in implementing risk management.

Facilitating risk management statement: It is important to give a statement that the company is not taking any chance of any risks, all the risks are taken seriously.

Outlining the strategy: Proper outline of the risk management has been taken to fix the strategy.

Training: It is the most important part and to be familiar with the new practices training is required to understand and mitigate the risk.

Document procedure: A well-written document is prepared for facilitating the risk management and point of the issue is clarified in the document and all the strategy as well for the staffs (Allen, Simonsen & Latessa,2015).

Choosing responsible officer: In order to facilitate the risk management responsibilities have been divided into the specific person for the better result.

  1. Develop an implementation plan in the policy that details responsibilities for implementation initial and ongoing training and maintenance of the policy.



Responsible officer


Conduct a training to the authority management regarding policy and effects of the policy

Within 2day

Policy coordinator


Sending draft to the company stakeholder

Within 4days

Policy manager


Arranging meeting or session with all the employees to let them know about the policy

Within 5days

Human resource manager


  1. Develop a mechanism for monitoring compliance with the policy, quality assurance and evaluation of the policy.

Preparing a monitoring strategy: First step to developing a monitoring mechanism is preparing a perfect strategy. Which need to evaluate and why need to evaluate and how to be evaluated such question must need to be answered by this strategy.

Allocate the responsibility: allocating responsibilities is the better option to monitor the whole process properly and fairly.

Evaluating others policy:  Evaluating others policy is important for the company because it will reveal the gap and strength of the company.

Checking the review: Review analysis is another important monitoring technique that can help to find out the effectiveness of the policy.

  1. Present the Policy and Procedure in the organizational style and format requirements

Access and Equity policy:

  • Marks and Spencer, as a largest retail business aims to ensure that free and flexible participation  of the customers in the store.
  • M&S ensures that all the customers are treated fairly and professionally.
  • M&S aims to ensure equal distribution of the resource and equal judgement.
  • Quality training is provided to increase the effectiveness of the employees.
  • Violence of the policy will be punished according to the rules and regulation.


  • Proper training will be provided.
  • Facilitating proper workplaces in the store .
  • Evaluation of the whole procedure in perfect time interval.
  1. Write an email to the key stakeholders in order to circulate the newly developed policy.

Sub: Circulation of the new policy.

All the people associated with the M&S are requested to look the new Access and Equity policy. The main aim of the policy is to provide equal and fair distribution of the resource and to remove all the barriers regarding discrimination on the ground of age, gender, culture, racism. Establishing the proper environment in all the stores and professional behaviour of the employees in the store. Proper training will be provided to every employee to understand the policy. You are requested to provide your feedback and opinion regarding the policy.

  1. How would you manage fallout from dissenting stakeholders?

    An opinion of the stakeholder is important for the policy and different opinion of different stakeholders need to be evaluated for a better result. In case of dissenting, an event can be arranged to make them understand about every rules and regulation of the policy. Their opinion must also be considered to develop the better policy. If any policy creates confusion or harms the stakeholders choice then that rules must need to be evaluated again.

  1. Organize an information session to release and promote the policy. Include the handouts and signatures of the participants who attended the information session.


Allen, H. E., Simonsen, C. E., & Latessa, E. J. (2015). Corrections in America: an introduction. Prentice Hall.

Boarnet, M. G., Giuliano, G., Hou, Y., & Shin, E. J. (2017). First/last mile transit access as an equity planning issue. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 103, 296-310.

Çifci, S., Ekinci, Y., Whyatt, G., Japutra, A., Molinillo, S., & Siala, H. (2016). A cross validation of Consumer-Based Brand Equity models: Driving customer equity in retail brands. Journal of Business Research, 69(9), 3740-3747.

Dunn, W. N. (2015). Public policy analysis. Routledge.

Hill, M., & Varone, F. (2014). The public policy process. Routledge.

Holmes, J. E. (2015). The mood/interest theory of American foreign policy. University Press of Kentucky.

Oleszek, W. J. (2014). Congressional procedures and the policy process. Sage.

Sheldon, M. R. (2016). Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy. Physical therapy, 96(1), 101-110.

Tomczak, T., Reinecke, S., & Kuss, A. (2018). Introduction. In Strategic Marketing (pp. 1-18). Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.

Valls, M., Ayrault, J. M., Royal, S., & Chanteguet, J. P. (2016). Bill project authorizing the ratification of the Paris agreement adopted on the 12 December 2015-Nr 3719. Impact study. Opinion on the behalf of the Commission for sustainable development and land planning on the bill project, after initiation of the accelerated procedure authorizing the ratification of the Paris agreement adopted on the 12 December 2015 (nr 3719)-Nr 3733.

Walsh, C. E. (2017). Monetary theory and policy. MIT press.

Welcome to Marks & Spencer. (2018). Retrieved 8 March 2018, from

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