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Part A: OHS Research and Findings
You have received an email from Jake who has asked you to conduct research and address some specific areas related to the OHS risk management in a report which you need to submit to him within the next week. For this task you will need to conduct research and examine the specific areas below. 
Write a report including items 1 to 7 below using a Word document, titled OHS Research & Findings, which addresses the following criteria: (Maximum 500 words)
1.List three (3) sources of workplace information and data which could be used to assess risks within the workplace and assist with hazard identification. For each source you have listed, explain their purpose and effectiveness in risk management. 
2.List three (3) sources of external sources of information or data which can be used to assist in the risk management process and why these sources are effective. 
3.List and provide a brief outline of the following and their significance in risk management on a construction site. 
Two (2) legislations 
Two (2) regulations
One (1) code of conduct 
Two (2) standards
Duty of care responsibilities for all relevant parties and professional liability in relation to providing advice on OHS.

4.List the key stakeholders and specialist advisors who should be consulted when managing risk at Sullivon Constructions.  (This should include both internal and external stakeholders) 

5.List three (3) occasions when hazard identification is required and are specific to a construction site. For each occasion outline: 
How the hazard should be documented? 
How the hazard identification will be communicated and to whom?
The tools which will be used to analyse the identified hazards?

6.List three (3) key policies and procedures at Sullivon Construction which must be followed when managing risk. 

Major sources of information for hazard identification

Risk management involves the process of identifying risk factors within a workplace, defining and assessing them as to determine the level of risk and control it, (Griffith, A. and Howarth, T., 2014).

 Major sources of information for hazard identification

  1. The employer and or industry associations.

Employees of an organization always receive trainings and sensations about their health and safety. Hence, businesses, employers is a vital source of workplace information. Furthermore, the job experience in the business workstations in itself is a way in which traders get to learn of health and safety information, (Holt, A.S.J. and Allen, J., 2015).

  1. The media

The media is the most common source of workplace information.  Most business owners have always learnt from the media of work place safety and health standards. The media is a trustworthy source as often live and credible scenarios are capture ass part of the advisory and recommendations that are given, (Idubor, E.E. and Oisamoje, M.D., 2013).

  • Official documents and publications by the government.  

The government through the relevant departments concerned with safety often publish pamphlets and brochures about health and safety standards that should be followed by contractors and involved stakeholders, (Alli, B.O., 2008).

Sources of external information

External hazards are those that could influence risk management procedures but which do not hail from within the workplace but are external. Sources of external information may include the following according to( DeJoy et al 2010):

  1. Legislation

The already laid out measured by the jurisdiction bodies of the government that define safety standards could be a good source of external source of information to help in decision making in risk assessment process, (Kongtip, P., Yoosook, W. and Chantanakul, S., 2008).

  1. Guidance protocols of practice material

Guidance protocols basically define practice codes that should be followed to ensure safety. These are often standard set forth by the government, (Dellve, L., Skagert, K. and Eklöf, M., 2008). These standards are the minimum requirements that are for safety within the area where they apply.

  • International experience

There is need to look outside the box so as to envisage health and safety standards as they hold all over the world. Some standards that have been set down through multi-national agencies such as the United Nations apply to most nations in the world. International experiences cannot be overestimated as a fit source of external information to help in risk management.

Internal sources of information

  1. Legislations

Legislations can act as a good regulator to help stakeholders stick to the standards that have been set to ensure health and safety.  For example, those regulations that regulate dangerous substances, machine operations procedures, noise, among others.

  1. Code of Ethics

Codes of conduct as set in a particular workplace are invaluable source of risk identification and control. For example, there may be a code of conduct to restrict employers from carrying out any duty that they have not been assigned, or executing duties before consulting with their seniors (administrators), (Idubor, E.E. and Oisamoje, M.D., 2013).

  • Standards

Standards could be developed to apply to various topics. This standard stand to be adhered to but they are not as formal as legislations could be. For example, there could be standards to govern the handling of machines or plants and or to govern employee working limitations.

  1. Individual Responsibility

Sources of external information

Every individual has task to ensure that they are safe and healthy. In this regard, the employees, managers and everyone who is within the workplace and even out ought to take the first responsibility of ensuring that they are safe and healthy within their areas of work, (Zanko, M. and Dawson, P., 2012).


Stakeholders need to be consulted to ensure a seamless and effective risk management process.

The internal and external stakeholders who should be consulted when assessing risk include the following:

Internal stakeholders

  1. Supervisors
  2. Managers
  • Employees
  1. Contractors

External stakeholders

  1. Relevant safety officials  safety regulation bodies
  2. The surrounding communities
  • Various committees from OHS.
  1. Legal practitioners.
  2. Local government officers

Hazard identification

Hazard identification may be necessary in the following occasions, (Dollard, M.F. and Bakker, A.B., 2010):

  1. At the designing of buildings or equipment
  2. Before changes are made to the organization of the work
  • During planning of major tasks
  1. During a reported incident
  2. During normal operations

Methods of Documentation

Various methods may be used to analyze these potential hazards according to (Smith, M.R. and Eastman, C.I., 2012). These may include:

  1. Informal check ins.
  2. Using interview, conducting surveys or use of questionnaires.
  • Carrying out safety analysis procedures
  1. Workplace inspections.
  2. Using tools such as checklists and task analysis for ergonomic survey.
  3. Normal inspections.

The procedures that manage a risk management process

  1. Flowcharts
  2. Use of tables or matrices
  • Text
  1. Mnemonics

Work Role Requirements

Job Role

Normal tasks carried out (minimum of 3 for each job role)

Task environment (e.g. working from heights)

Potential situations for injury or ill health

Specific work role hazard

Risks associated with identified hazard


Project Manager

i. Managing day to day operations in the project

ii. Supervising and assigning roles to employees

iii. Receiving instructions and implementing orders from his seniors

Works from his office, with orders from the overall manager

Falling debris


Injury during supervision

Mis-reading a sign or situation leading to inappropriate orders



i. Carrying out the assigned duties

ii. Reporting to the manager

iii. Monitoring assets of the company

Working within the line of duty as signed by the supervisor

Working slip injury

Work-related injury

Injuring when leaving work place/site


i. Assists in proper planning

ii. Assists in quoting

iii. advisory

Works within site

Falling debris


OHS Rerport



[email protected]  supervisors, managers, OHC officials







As per the requirements of OHS standards, I, as the site supervisor, I hereby acknowledge that safety and health must be an all-time considered factor in any construction project. With regard with my role as to ensure that OHC policies and guidelines are adhered to, I hereby present an OHS report hereby attached, and commend it to you for validation and review.

      I therefore, with respect to you as noble and dependable stakeholder to review this report and request for your input as in any issue that you may deem worthy of review or consideration especially as pertains to the OHS standards.

      Thank you for your continued support and cooperation.

RIisk Assessment

Investigator Name

Write name here

Date of Risk Assessment

Workplace Area


General Site Inspection


Initial Risk Score


Potential Harms

Techniques, Tools and Processes to Assess Risks

Proposed Control Measures and Reason for Implementing

Risk Score after Control Measure Implemented

Reason for proposed Risk Control

Falling building debris


Falling debris

Severe injury



Frequency tables

1, Individuals should always be sure that the site is clear of falling debris before passing

Ii. There should be carefulness by worker so that necessary protection ratchets are properly fixed.

Every worker should have on safety clothing during work.

Injury During work


Active injury

Passive injury

Body injury



Unnecessary movements should be avoided

Safety clothing should be put on always

 Machine mishandling





Machines an d plants should always be handled by experienced operators

No unauthorized operations should be carried out

Safety assessment should always be carried out before operating on machines


i. All the OHC safety standards should be adhered to

ii. All the agreed and publicly published international standards must be incorporated into the general code of conduct

iii. All the policies and guidelines set down in the code of conduct should be strictly followed.


Description of Risk

(including any identified ‘triggers’)

Impact on Project

(Identify consequences )

Assessment of


Assessment of


Grade  (combined Likelihood and Seriousness)


Date of Review

Mitigation Actions

(Preventative or Contingency)

Responsibility for mitigation action(s)


Timeline for mitigation action(s)

Work Breakdown Structure



Falling debris

Death of individuals

Work panic


Fear at work

Highly likely





Avoid building sites

Workers to put on safety clothing

Workers and supervisors and managers


3 hours




Machine induced injuries

Death of individuals

Work panic


Fear at work

Less likely





Operators only to  operate machines


No operation without authority

Workers and supervisors and managers


4 hours



I take this opportunity to thank each and every one of you for making it to this very important meeting. Feel most welcome. Without wasting much time I will directly go into business of why we are here. As the site supervisor for Sullivon Constructions, my major role is to ensure that safety and health standards are maintained and that the occupational health and safety risks that may be identified are properly managed. In this regard, I have done risk assessment and given a report, which I suppose you must have received through your emails. We are here today to so that we may now discuss on methods of controlling risks in this construction site and formulate measures by which we can mitigate this risk hazards identified in the report.

With me I have my colleagues, Jake, Jai and Jane. I am sure most of you know Jake. He is the construction manager at Sullivon Constructions, Jai is my job colleague; he is of so much help to me when am stuck, you know. And Jane is an OHS representative from the main office. She is here today to share with us in this meeting; you know, when she is here, we know that the entire OHS team is here- she is such a powerful lady.  (Engage the participants at this point).

Sullivon Constructions is committed to quality of service and is therefore most obliged to ensure that everyone around here is safe.

I will now give a review the risk assessment report. According to the report that I put down and documented, the major risks identified were falling debris, machine mishandling and on work injury. You need to understand that there is difference between a hazard and a risk. A hazard is a situation or something that is liable to induce harm while a risk is the possibility of a harm occurring as a result of the hazard. All these hazards are prone to befall us here in this construction site, you know. We’ve got to be on the safe side. In the case of falling debris, you know we going here- the building is now ten stories high and we have to go seven more stories high. That tells the risk of falling debris keeps going high as we go higher. Falling debris can be from building material to building tools. For injury at work, a worker or supervisor or engineer may harm themselves, may be a slip of tool may injure them or such. This is very normal. For machine mishandling, the specialists handling the machines may make a mistake, and here anything can happen, from injuries to burns.

Internal sources of information

I have outlined a few controls to help reduce these risks:

To start with, there should be no aimless walking around the construction site. The safety ratchets that should be fixed around the building site also need to be properly done. The scaffolds should be erected according to the OHS standards to avoid fall hazards. I have reviewed them and they meet all the legislative requirements. The forklifts and other machines should only be operated by experts, and not anybody around eighteen years. The code of conduct policies and guidelines will really help in reducing many unnecessary of these hazards. The only thing that I have noticed is the central water point that is lacking. It is important that we have one around, and I think the Jane will talk more on that.

As a risk management procedure, there is need to establish a risk register. A risk register is a document makes it easier to track identified hazards and risks.  A risk register will make risk management procedure seamless and efficient.

The measures that have already been put in place to control risks in this particular construction site are all in order and according to the required OHS standards except that most of the standards and guidelines are not particular enough. For example I saw the noise pollution policy which only stated that noise pollution is not allowed. Surely, it needs to be more specific than this. We need to know to how much level is pollution and to how much is accepted. Jake, you need to see on that.

I will hereby request Jane to clarify the OHS standards and policies and how they should be handled here.


Thank you so much for this opportunity. This is not something that I can consummate now, but because you need to get something, I will just brief you. At OHS implementation commission, we have guidelines and policies that governs our work. The OHS standards that have been set need be implemented clearly and precisely such that one need not confuse at anything. This is most important. Give concentration to little maters, and you will not have to worry about extraneous hazard implications. Thank you.

You can please also add something on how we can put up measures to control the identified risks. Do I have someone to comment? (Engage).

I would want us to set frequency by which we will be reviewing these implementations. This is part of the OHS policy. I can have Jake to give us a brief timeline of this project and give the necessary resources that we should require. (Engage).


Thank you. This project is scheduled to take 13 months. We are really working smart to beat the deadline. We have more than 2000 dollars in our budget set aside to support this exercise. We want safety all for everyone. Thank you.

Thank you Jake. Now we can agree to have regular reviews. We have seven months remaining. Can we have reviews every after one month? What do you think? (Engage). I suppose this would be the most appropriate timing. Thank you for consenting. As such, we will be reviewing the risk prevention procedures in place monthly. Any input?

In conclusion, the changes that we have noted, I request for your cooperation that we may do the necessary rectifications for positive results. Thank you so much for your time. Let’s meet next.

Participant’s name


Write name here


Write name here


Write name here



Date Hazard Identified

Strategy/action for reducing risk

Action taken

Date action taken

Person responsible


Restrict movements within the site

Put on safety ratchets on every floor





Construction manager

Construction manager


Machines to be operated only by the assigned operators

Plan underway to have OHS representative visit on site to help in implementing


Construction manager


All worker, supervisors and engineers to put on safety clothing



Construction manager









In regard with the meeting that we had on 17/08/2018, I hereby have the pleasure to present to you the work plan that we put down in order to reduce identified hazards and reduce the risks.

Attached is the action plan. Please check.

Note that we set a regular review timeline to one month. We will be meeting to review the risk management control progress. Our next review will be on Tuesday, 16/09/2018.



Alli, B.O., 2008. Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety Second edition. Geneva, International Labour Organization, 15.

Dellve, L., Skagert, K. and Eklöf, M., 2008. The impact of systematic occupational health and safety management for occupational disorders and long-term work attendance. Social science & medicine, 67(6), pp.965-970.

Dollard, M.F. and Bakker, A.B., 2010. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(3), pp.579-599.

Smith, M.R. and Eastman, C.I., 2012. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment. Nature and science of sleep, 4, p.111.

Zanko, M. and Dawson, P., 2012. Occupational health and safety management in organizations: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(3), pp.328-344.

Kongtip, P., Yoosook, W. and Chantanakul, S., 2008. Occupational health and safety management in small and medium-sized enterprises: An overview of the situation in Thailand. Safety Science, 46(9), pp.1356-1368.

DeJoy, D.M., Della, L.J., Vandenberg, R.J. and Wilson, M.G., 2010. Making work safer: Testing a model of social exchange and safety management. Journal of safety research, 41(2), pp.163-171.

Idubor, E.E. and Oisamoje, M.D., 2013. An exploration of health and safety management issues in Nigeria’s effort to industrialize. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 9(12).

Holt, A.S.J. and Allen, J., 2015. Principles of health and safety at work. Routledge.

Griffith, A. and Howarth, T., 2014. Construction health and safety management. Routledge.

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