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Risk Assessment

Discuss about the Classification of security threat in the system.

Assessment of risk is a systematic process that evaluates the potential risks involved within an organization. It consists of overall processes and methods of identifying the present hazards in an existing system. The identification and estimation of the different levels of risks associated with a situation is a complex process and therefore, proper risk assessment plan is laid out before the process initiation (Von Solms & Van Niekerk 2013). The risk assessment process is divided into a number of stages, which includes identification of the hazards, accessing the risks and putting all the control measures in place. Identification of the hazards includes analysis of all the possible threats present in the system. The next stage includes accessing the risk. This is needed in order to evaluate the probable effect of the identified risks into the system. After the risk has been identified in the system and the network, it is essential to put control measures in place, in order to mitigate the identified risks. The control measures or precautions ensure that no data is lost from the system (O’Connell, 2012).

The online operations of the organization are subjected to a number of risks. The project associated with the risk assessment includes identification, analyzing and evaluation of the risk. Proper cyber security control must be ensured in order to eliminate the risk of attack into the system. The project aims at developing a secure network within the organization along with ensuring proper protection in the existing systems of the organization (Cherdantseva et al., 2016). The development of the IT risk assessment report deals with the  development of a risk register for the identified risks (Jouini, Rabai & Aissa, 2014). 

SL.No

Security Risks/Threats

Description

Likelihood

Impact

Priority

1.

Threat Insider

A deliberate risk of data loss due to the act of a threat insider ( Hartmann & Steup, 2013)

High

Severe

High

2.

Phishing

Infusing malicious links into the system through email spam ( Hong, 2012)

High

Severe

High

3.

Ransomware

It is a type of malware that restricts the access to the computer system ( Pathak & Nanded, 2016).)

High

Severe

High

4.

Threats from BYOD

The employees working on their own mobile devices within the organization can be a source of data vulnerability in the system.

Medium

Severe

High

5.

Denial of Service Attack

Jamming the internal network of the organization, so that the legitimate users cannot use the resources ( Wang et al., 2015)

Low

Very low

Low

6.

Brute Force attack

Use of a specific software by a hacker in order to guess a password. However, it may take a considerable amount of time.

Medium

Medium

Medium

7.

Injection Attacks

The database of the organization is controlled by an attacker through this attack

Medium

High

High

8.

Malware Attack

Malicious software that can monitor all the operations of the system and transmit data into the system as well ( Khouzani,  Sarkar & Altman, 2012)

High

Severe

High

9.

Lack of Recovery Planning

Lack of proper disaster recovery system can lead to the permanent loss of data

Low

Medium

Low

10.

Lack of proper cyber security policy

Lack of proper security policies in the organization may lead to the various security risks within the organization

Low

Low

Low


The risks identified above are some of the most common risk that the organization Gigantic Corporation is exposed to. The risk matrix explains the impact of the identified risks and the likelihood of their occurrence within the organization.  The priority of the risks is identified and a high priority risk indicates that the particular risk requires immediate attention. While the medium and low priority of the risk indicates that the particular risk can be attended in due time as well. Since the project is about development of a network and information system within the organization that is capable of detecting and eliminating the active threats of the system, it is very essential to eliminate the identified risk or mitigate these risks from creeping into the system. The risk mitigation strategies are to be defined and implemented properly in the system so as to eliminate the all the threats associated with the system. The different mitigation strategies include ensuring proper intrusion detection system and use of antivirus in such system is necessary. There are mainly two types of attacks, active attack and passive attack. The passive attack in the systems is difficult to detect as it deals with the silent monitoring of the system in order to collect confidential information from the system. Active attack on the other hand is easier to detect for is more harmful to the system.  

Risk Register

The risk of threat insider can only be mitigated by limiting the use of confidential data of the organization only to some selected member of the organization. In this way, the data loss (if any) can be easily tracked and necessary actions can be taken against the member. The risk matrix mentions that the impact of the threat from an insider is sever and therefore, this risk should be mitigated as soon as possible. 


Phishing is a critical threat that can be mitigated only by installing proper intrusion detection system. Furthermore, all the employees should be properly trained about the proper and safe use of emails. E-mail is a major tool of phishing attack as the malicious links are forwarded to the victims through emails. If a user clicks on the link, the virus spreads into the entire system, leading to the loss of confidential and personal data from the system. However, the presence of a proper intrusion detection system might help in blocking such malicious emails.

Ransomware attack is one the most dangerous and most common cybercrimes. In this attack, the attacker gets an access of all the important data present in a system or network and locks them. In turn, the attacker demands a ransom from the victim for unlocking the data. This risk can be mitigated by installing an up to date antivirus in the system (Brewer, 2016). This can detect and eliminate the presence of ransomware from the system. Impact of the ransomware is marked severe in the risk matrix, as this malware is capable of transferring from one system to all the other system connected over a common network, without human interference. Therefore, this risk should be dealt with as soon as possible. For this, it is mandatory to ensure that the antivirus software installed for each system of the Gigantic Corporation is working effectively or not. Furthermore, the option of automatic patches for the operating system should be ensured. It is the responsibility of the risk manager to limit the older operating system.

Threats from BYOD can be easily mitigated by ensuring that proper antivirus protection is installed in every device. Firewall protection of the system should be turned on in order to detect the entry of any malicious particle into the system. This can however, be a source of deliberate threat as a threat insider and therefore, the impact of this threat is marked severe in the matrix.


Denial of service attack is a less severe attack that can be easily mitigated by limiting the rate of traffic a network can withstand in a particular time limit (Bhuyan, Bhattacharyya & Kalita, 2015). Furthermore, it does not lead to any data loss and therefore, it can be mitigated in due course. Similarly, the brute force attack can be mitigated by the use of a strong password that will be hard to guess (Raza et al., 2012).

Injection attack on the other hand is a severe risk that needs a proper attention. This is a common attack that aims at gaining the confidential information of the system. This can be mitigated by prevention of the use of dynamic SQL. Furthermore, use of firewall in the system can reduce the risk of injection attack. It is utmost essential to use proper antivirus software for mitigation of the risk (Sharma, Johari & Sarma, 2012).

Malware attack is another severe attack and therefore needs a wide attention. The systems of the Gigantic Corporation are exposed to malware threat due to the use of un-patched systems and absence of proper antivirus in the system. Furthermore, malware can easily spread to different systems connected over a single network and therefore, it is essential to mitigate the risk at once. A proper intrusion detection system will help in detecting the entry of malware into the system. Use of firewall into the system is essential in order to mitigate the risk associated with the systems.

However, even after ensuring proper risk mitigation strategies into the system, it becomes essential to ensure that the organization has a proper disaster recovery plan. This will help the organization in recovering all the important and the confidential data in case it is being compromised. A proper disaster recovery plan ensures that the catastrophic events do not destroy the company or its data (Wallace & Webber, 2017).

There are many security risks associated with websites that are needed to be properly mitigated in order to ensure the normal operations of the website. The major security risks associated with a website includes hacking, virus attack and identity theft. These are the most common security threats associated with the operation of the websites. Hacking is a common method by which an attacker gains access to the website with an aim of stealing confidential data from the same. The confidential data includes the customers’ list of the company, passwords of the employees and financial information (Gharibi & Shaabi, 2012). The gained information is generally used by the hacker for their own benefit, such as selling the information to the rival company in exchange of money. This might lead to the considerable loss of the company.

Similar is the case for virus as well. Virus is a specialized code that is designed or written in order to cause damage to the system. This can be a key logger and or a software that is capable of stealing the users files. Virus is generally uploaded to a web server with the help of input forms or with the use of backdoors. This can cause various issues in the website, such as change of the contents of the website, so as to redirect the users to a malicious website. Another severe problem with the presence of virus is a website is that the same virus can be downloaded in the computer of the user. This can help the attacker in gaining access to the confidential information present in the system. Gigantic Corporation is exposed to this threat as well. Furthermore, virus can be easily transferred to the different system that are connected over a single network. Therefore, presence of virus in the website is a major risk, which requires proper protection mechanism in order to secure the website’s data.

Identity theft is another major risk associated with a particular website. This refers to a situation, where the identity of a person or user is compromised and used for carrying on various criminal activities. Websites generally posses an increasing threat of identity theft. Hackers for using ones personal information for identity fraud generally intercept this.

These threats in the website can be mitigated by the ensuring proper protection measures such as use of firewalls, secure socket layer and standards adherence.

Firewall application can be installed in a web server in order to check all the communication and traffic to and fro the server. This ensures that any foreign or malicious data packet is blocked from entering the system (Suh et al., 2014). The firewall ensures only the legitimate packets enter into the system.

Secure socket layer is a commonly used method for preventing the identity theft. The use of HTTPS ensures that a secure connection is established between the client and the server. Proper encryption of any information sent between the client and the server ensures that no third person is able to decrypt the information (Zissis & Lekkas, 2012).

The website and the web server are needed to adhere with the standard security guidelines in order to prevent any outside attack (Vance, Siponen & Pahnila, 2012). Use of a strong password in a server prevents it from being hacked.

References

Bhuyan, M. H., Bhattacharyya, D. K., & Kalita, J. K. (2015). An empirical evaluation of information metrics for low-rate and high-rate DDoS attack detection. Pattern Recognition Letters, 51, 1-7.

Brewer, R. (2016). Ransomware attacks: detection, prevention and cure. Network Security, 2016(9), 5-9.

Cherdantseva, Y., Burnap, P., Blyth, A., Eden, P., Jones, K., Soulsby, H., & Stoddart, K. (2016). A review of cyber security risk assessment methods for SCADA systems. computers & security, 56, 1-27.

Gharibi, W., & Shaabi, M. (2012). Cyber threats in social networking websites. arXiv preprint arXiv:1202.2420.

Hartmann, K., & Steup, C. (2013, June). The vulnerability of UAVs to cyber attacks-An approach to the risk assessment. In Cyber Conflict (CyCon), 2013 5th International Conference on(pp. 1-23). IEEE.

Hong, J. (2012). The state of phishing attacks. Communications of the ACM, 55(1), 74-81.

Jouini, M., Rabai, L. B. A., & Aissa, A. B. (2014). Classification of security threats in information systems. Procedia Computer Science, 32, 489-496.

Khouzani, M. H. R., Sarkar, S., & Altman, E. (2012). Maximum damage malware attack in mobile wireless networks. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking (TON), 20(5), 1347-1360.

O’Connell, M. E. (2012). Cyber security without cyber war. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 17(2), 187-209.

Pathak, D. P., & Nanded, Y. M. (2016). A dangerous trend of cybercrime: ransomware growing challenge. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume, 5.

Raza, M., Iqbal, M., Sharif, M., & Haider, W. (2012). A survey of password attacks and comparative analysis on methods for secure authentication. World Applied Sciences Journal, 19(4), 439-444.

Sharma, P., Johari, R., & Sarma, S. S. (2012). Integrated approach to prevent SQL injection attack and reflected cross site scripting attack. International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management, 3(4), 343-351.

Suh, M., Park, S. H., Lee, B., & Yang, S. (2014, February). Building firewall over the software-defined network controller. In Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 2014 16th International Conference on (pp. 744-748). IEEE.

Vance, A., Siponen, M., & Pahnila, S. (2012). Motivating IS security compliance: insights from habit and protection motivation theory. Information & Management, 49(3), 190-198.

 Von Solms, R., & Van Niekerk, J. (2013). From information security to cyber security. computers & security, 38, 97-102.

Wallace, M., & Webber, L. (2017). The disaster recovery handbook: A step-by-step plan to ensure business continuity and protect vital operations, facilities, and assets. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.

Wang, B., Zheng, Y., Lou, W., & Hou, Y. T. (2015). DDoS attack protection in the era of cloud computing and software-defined networking. Computer Networks, 81, 308-319.

Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. (2012). Addressing cloud computing security issues. Future Generation computer systems, 28(3), 583-592.

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