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Modified waterfall model

The list of tasks making up the timeline of the project is shown below in the work breakdown structure (WBS) in Figure 4. The project is then scheduled as reflected in the following Gantt chart in Figure 5. Satzinger, Jackson and Burd (2016) explained that a work breakdown structure is a list of identified tasks required to be undertaken for and resources required to perform the tasks. It outlines the project by providing general information.

As reflected in the project’s each activity. This gives a general outline of the activities of the project that needs to be completed and the expected time to work on each task.

shows all iterations of the Online Movie Sales ordering system in the format of a Gantt chart.  The chart shows all the tasks required from the start to finish of the Extreme Programming method of development.

The Assumptions made in preparing the Gantt chart are:of all task scheduling. The Microsoft Project file containing the Gantt chart is also included with the assessment submission.

The project schedule is represented in the Gantt chart in Figure 5. The Gantt chart is a bar chart that graphically shows the activities as bars on a horizontal timeline (Satzinger, Jackson & Burd 2016). It uses the list of activities in the WBS and with the aid of Microsoft project scheduling tool, the activities are accurately analysed and scheduled.

For the EIA ASRMS project schedule, the activities as shown in the WBS structure in Figure 4 are entered into the Gantt chart and are accurately scheduled and analysed using Microsoft project. It can be seen that morethe whole project.

Cost benefit analysis (CBA) is an economic framework that is commonly used by organisations to select among alternatives when it comes to making decisions about certain investments (Ali 2012). The underlying premise of CBA is that there are costs as well as benefits associated with an investment in a project so a cost benefit analysis is undertaken to analyse whether the investment in a project is economically viable before making the decision to invest. It gives an overall picture about the project hence often leads to better decision making (Ali 2012).

The cost benefit analysis for the EIA automated student recruitment management system (ASRMS) is presented in Figure 7. The cost benefit analysis is based on the estimated annual costs and benefits associated with the project as summarised and presented in Figure 6. The analysis indicates that investing in the ASRMS project is economically viable.

The costs and benefits have been projected over a 5-year period as shown in Figure 7 and after discounting for their present values using a discount rate of 6%, the result is an overall positive net present value of $76,370.91. Return on investment is 61% with a pay-back period of 1.81 years in which time the initial development cost of $50,000 is recouped. In other words, the break-even point occurs between years 1 and 2. According to Satzinger, Jackson and Burd (2016) the payback period required by many companies for new systems development is a period of two to three years so the 1.81 years is well within the acceptable period. Based on the analysis the EIA’s ASRMS project is economically feasible and the project can proceed.

Modified waterfall model

The selected methodologies for the development of an Online Mercy Hospital Pharmacy system are modified waterfall model and unified process.

Modified waterfall model

This methodology is a popular version of system development life cycle model (SDLC). The advantage of this waterfall development is that it provides permission for departmentalization as well as executive control. There are five phases of modified waterfall model such as requirements, design, implementation, verification and maintenance (Rouse 2016). A schedule is being set with strict deadlines for each of the development stages and a product is being preceded with the development processes.

Development moves from the concept, throughout design, implementing, testing, installation, troubleshooting as well as ending of the process as well as continuance. The key modules into the pharmacy system include patient management (registration along with long term care), patient care management (pharmacy activities), financial module (billing, management of materials, accounts and payable, payroll), support modules (pharmacy label printer’s combination), capture of image and document.

Unified process

 The other software development methodology is unified process which is an incremental development process which for development of pharmacy system. This methodology describes an easy to understand approach in order to develop business application software (Tipaldi et al. 2013). It understands the nature and functions of the pharmacy business such as filling of the medical prescriptions for the hospital patients as well as distributes of the medications to the nurse stations those are responsible for care of the patients. Unified process model identifies the viable solution in order to address the problem domain of manual process.

The implementation of the computer application as information system transforms the model into executable code as well as carries out of basic level of testing. An objective evaluation is performed in order to ensure the quality of the information system. Testing is done to find the defects, validate if the system is working as per the design and verifies if the customer’s requirements are met.

The delivery of the information system is planned and executed it to make availability of the system to the users (Alshamrani and Bahattab 2015). Using these particular software methodologies, all the project activities for development of pharmacy system is directed in the project work. It includes of management of the risks, directs people, and coordinates with people as well as system outside the project scope to deliver the project work on time and budget.

Comparison of modified waterfall model and unified process

  1. Waterfall model is easier to implement as well as understand. Unified process is an object oriented development to assign of the project tasks.
  2. Waterfall model identifies of the project deliverables along with milestones. Unified process ensures of the production of higher quality of software within estimated time as well as budget (Elghondakly, Moussa and Badr 2015).
  3. Waterfall model is worked well on the mature deliverables. Unified process is maintained by the standards of the object management group.
  4. Waterfall model is based on real projects which follow of the sequential approaches. Unified process is based on real and software projects.
  5. There is an uncertainty into development of the system in modified waterfall model. Unified process ensures of higher quality development of the information system (Singh, Thakur and Chaudhary 2015).

Work breakdown structure (WBS)

The WBS is drawn for the Online Mercy Hospital Pharmacy system which consists of software is used for generation of reports, prints of invoices, bills, receipts. It also records the database of the send and delivery of the prescriptions to different pharmacy stations.

WBS

Task Name

Duration

1.1

Project planning phase

10 days

1.1.1

Preliminary estimation

2 days

1.1.2

Preparation of the technical specifications

4 days

1.1.3

Startup of the project review

4 days

1.2

Project analysis phase

10 days

1.2.1

Identify the project stakeholders

2 days

1.2.2

Identify the use cases to develop pharmacy system

3 days

1.2.3

Identify the hardware and software requirements

5 days

1.3

Project design phase

9 days

1.3.1

Design report layout

1 day

1.3.2

Identify the program classes

3 days

1.3.3

Design of the information system architecture

5 days

1.4

Project implementation phase

8 days

1.4.1

Implementation of pharmacy database system

3 days

1.4.2

Programming of the database

3 days

1.4.3

Coding of the pharmacy database

1 day

1.4.4

Set up the system as per user's requirements

1 day

1.5

Project testing phase

23 days

1.5.1

Functional testing

7 days

1.5.2

User acceptance testing

9 days

1.5.3

Prepare the release

5 days

1.5.4

Release of new information system

2 days

Table 1: Work breakdown structure

(Source: Created by author)

As reflected into the work breakdown structure of the project plan, it provides with the outline of the project activities which are required to complete within scheduled time as shown in the above table.

Project Gantt chart 

Following table is the project schedule of the project plan of development of pharmacy system. Gantt chart is shown which provides the details of the tasks along with the duration of each activity, in addition to its start as well as finish date. Microsoft Project Software is used to draw the Gantt chart of the project plan. From the below table, it is estimated that the total duration for the development process is 60 days. The start date is 12/15/17 and end date is 3/8/18.

WBS

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

1

Online Mercy Hospital Pharmacy system

60 days

Fri 12/15/17

Thu 3/8/18

1.1

Project planning phase

10 days

Fri 12/15/17

Thu 12/28/17

1.1.1

Preliminary estimation

2 days

Fri 12/15/17

Mon 12/18/17

1.1.2

Preparation of the technical specifications

4 days

Tue 12/19/17

Fri 12/22/17

1.1.3

Startup of the project review

4 days

Mon 12/25/17

Thu 12/28/17

1.2

Project analysis phase

10 days

Fri 12/29/17

Thu 1/11/18

1.2.1

Identify the project stakeholders

2 days

Fri 12/29/17

Mon 1/1/18

1.2.2

Identify the use cases to develop pharmacy system

3 days

Tue 1/2/18

Thu 1/4/18

1.2.3

Identify the hardware and software requirements

5 days

Fri 1/5/18

Thu 1/11/18

1.3

Project design phase

9 days

Fri 1/12/18

Wed 1/24/18

1.3.1

Design report layout

1 day

Fri 1/12/18

Fri 1/12/18

1.3.2

Identify the program classes

3 days

Mon 1/15/18

Wed 1/17/18

1.3.3

Design of the information system architecture

5 days

Thu 1/18/18

Wed 1/24/18

1.4

Project implementation phase

8 days

Thu 1/25/18

Mon 2/5/18

1.4.1

Implementation of pharmacy database system

3 days

Thu 1/25/18

Mon 1/29/18

1.4.2

Programming of the database

3 days

Tue 1/30/18

Thu 2/1/18

1.4.3

Coding of the pharmacy database

1 day

Fri 2/2/18

Fri 2/2/18

1.4.4

Set up the system as per user's requirements

1 day

Mon 2/5/18

Mon 2/5/18

1.5

Project testing phase

23 days

Tue 2/6/18

Thu 3/8/18

1.5.1

Functional testing

7 days

Tue 2/6/18

Wed 2/14/18

1.5.2

User acceptance testing

9 days

Thu 2/15/18

Tue 2/27/18

1.5.3

Prepare the release

5 days

Wed 2/28/18

Tue 3/6/18

1.5.4

Release of new information system

2 days

Wed 3/7/18

Thu 3/8/18

Project budgeting 

Cost-Benefit - INPUT VALUES

Hardware

$         10,000.00

Software

$           6,000.00

Development team salaries

$           9,000.00

Training

$           5,000.00

Total Development Cost

$         30,000.00

Hardware

$           1,000.00

Software

$           1,000.00

Operational Labor

$           1,500.00

Total Operational Cost

$           3,500.00

Approximate salary savings

$       100,000.00

Reduced operating cost

$           4,000.00

Total Benefit

$       104,000.00

Discount Rate Used

7.00%


Project Cost-Benefit Analysis

Economic Benefit

$0.00

 $ 104,000.00

 $      104,000.00

 $   104,000.00

 $ 104,000.00

 $   104,000.00

Discount Rate

1.0000

0.9346

0.8734

0.8163

0.7629

0.7130

PV of Benefits

$0.00

$97,196.26

$90,837.63

$84,894.98

$79,341.10

$74,150.56

NPV of all BENEFITS

$0.00

 $   97,196.26

 $      188,033.89

 $   272,928.87

 $ 352,269.97

 $   426,420.53

Recurring Costs

$0.00

 $    (3,500.00)

 $          (3,500.00)

 $      (3,500.00)

 $     (3,500.00)

 $      (3,500.00)

Discount Rate

1.0000

0.9346

0.8734

0.8163

0.7629

0.7130

PV of Recurring Costs

$0.00

 $       (3,271.03)

 $            (3,057.04)

 $         (2,857.04)

 $        (2,670.13)

 $         (2,495.45)

NPV of all COSTS

 $ (30,000.00)

 $     (33,271.03)

 $           (36,328.06)

 $       (39,185.11)

 $      (41,855.24)

 $       (44,350.69)

Yearly NPV Cash FLOW

 $ (30,000.00)

 $     93,925.23

 $           87,780.59

 $       82,037.94

 $      76,670.97

 $       71,655.11

Overall NPV Cash FLOW

 $ (30,000.00)

 $     63,925.23

 $         151,705.83

 $     233,743.76

 $    310,414.73

 $     382,069.84

Project breakeven occurs between 0 and 1 year

Discussion of break even period and Return on investment (ROI)

From the above cost benefit analysis table, it is shown that the initial investment cost to develop the pharmacy system is $30,000 and the recurring cost is $3500. The cost and benefit is projected for a total period of 5 years. After providing the discount rate of 7%, there is total new present value of $ 382,069. The return on investment is 86.14% with a payback period of 116.58 days.

Breakeven period

 It is the time period when both development cost and recurring cost is equal to the project benefit cost. The cost benefit analysis is for the pharmacy system with a breakeven period is between 0 and 1 year. Therefore, the company takes of over 1 year to cover the project cost to get a positive return.

Return on investment

 It is the value that the company will get return relative to the cost of investment. Here, the return on investment is 86.14%.

References

Alshamrani, A. and Bahattab, A., 2015. A comparison between three SDLC models waterfall model, spiral model, and Incremental/Iterative model. International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), 12(1), p.106.

Elghondakly, R., Moussa, S. and Badr, N., 2015, December. Waterfall and agile requirements-based model for automated test cases generation. In Intelligent Computing and Information Systems (ICICIS), 2015 IEEE Seventh International Conference on (pp. 607-612). IEEE.

Rouse, M., 2016. Waterfall model. Essential guide: CIO guide to project management basics DevOps and Agile, pp.1-50.

Singh, D., Thakur, A. and Chaudhary, A., 2015. A Comparative Study between Waterfall and Incremental Software Development Life Cycle Model. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Science and Technology, 2(04).

Tipaldi, M., Götz, C., Ferraguto, M., Troiano, L. and Bruenjes, B., 2013. The Robust Software Feedback Model: an effective Waterfall Model tailoring for Space SW. Proceedings of DASIA-Data Systems in Aerospace.

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[Accessed 16 July 2024].

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