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Independent reading level

Discuss about the Collaborative Learning Techniques?

1. It is that particular level at which the preferred candidate or the child is able to read a particular text on his own ability with great ease (Barkley, Major, and Cross, 2014).  The child does not feel any difficulty and has hardly any errors while reading the entire text and has Excellency in the comprehension of the complete story. The child or the candidate has the full confidence to read the story or the text alone.

In case, if the student is unable to read the desired text perfectly or if the student finds some difficulty then there would be the use of the written materials.   

Instructional reading level

It is that highest level at which the preferred reader is dependent but the reader has the desired knowledge about the topic and can access the text without having any errors or with fewer errors.   It is evident to know about the independent and highest level as the teacher then is able to ask the desired child or the candidate about reading the text. 

If the reader or the students have less knowledge about a particular topic, then the written materials can be easily used. Moreover, these can be also used to remove the errors coming while the reading of the text.

Frustration reading level

It is that particular level for the reader or the candidate in whom the concerned candidate feels very difficulty in reading the provided text and the accuracy is less than 90% word.  The words or the respective text makes it difficult for the reader to read it easily and that’s why this comes in the frustration level category of the reader.

The written materials can be used to increase the accuracy as well as to lower down the frustration level of the concerned students.  

Listening comprehension

This particularly encompasses the various methods involved in making sense and the desired understanding of the spoken language (Barkley, Major, and Cross, 2014).  This process includes the recognition of the desired speeches and the sounds, evaluation understanding the meaning of the desired words and the preferred syntax of different sentences in which these words are represented.

In order to enhance the listening skills, the use of the written materials have become very important. This also helps in clarifying all the doubts and the difficulty while reading the desired text.  

Instructional reading level

Therefore, it becomes very important for the teachers to make the students understand about the particular text, by increasing his or her knowledge and the learning skills about the different subjects concerned.

2. The reciprocal teaching is considered to be very important for students like Jose, as it will help in increasing the reading comprehension ability (Buch and Barron, 2012). It becomes very important to understand the desired and the main elements of the particular story while reading and this can only be done with the help of RT (reciprocal teaching). Moreover, the reciprocal teaching helps in providing the desired reading strategies such as questioning, summarizing, clarifying and the predicting of the main elements present in the story or the reading text.   Questioning helps in bringing out the desired important elements as well as the hidden elements of the story. It helps the reader to provide the adequate concept to be evaluated with the then story. The next is the summarizing the entire chapter which will help in bringing out the moral of the story and it will reflect the reader has completed understands the story. Next is the clarification which will help the reader in understanding the difficulty areas which have not been understood by the particular reader. The clarification is most important for the reader who find difficulty with the listening and the reading comprehension (Hsiung, Luo, and Chung, 2014).   The final step is the prediction which will help in bringing out the desired possible outcome from the story to the concerned reader. Jose has the difficulty in finding out the main and the important ideas from the story, therefore, the four important elements of the reciprocal teaching will. Help to enhance the desired skills of Jose and will it easier for him to understand and clarify the main ideas of the story.

As a teacher, the use of RT helps in increasing the desired skills of the students within the classroom. In an RT lesson, the prediction helps the students to predict the next events of the story and therefore the students can easily identify the literary elements or the upcoming events within the story. In some cases, the students are quite gets excited and answers quickly related to the different parts of the concerned text. 

The reciprocal teaching is being used regularly, in order to enhance the skills and the knowledge of the students to compete with the apace of the generation. It is significantly used in order to encourage the students to develop their own personal thought and processes during the reading. It has been used daily so as to involve as well as monitor their comprehension skills.

In a typical RT class the students are divided into single group of four and then one note card is divided to each member of the group by identifying each of the individual’s roles. Each of the four are divided one as summarizer, questioner, clarifier and a predictor.  Then the students are encouraged as per the note-taking strategies like the sticky-notes or the selective underlying notes which will critically help to enhance their performance in the discussions. Then the summarizer is then called to highlight the key ideas within the concerned reading. Next the questioner will pose questions regarding the selection such as the unclear parts, information’s that puzzled up and connections to various other concepts that are already learned. Then the clarifier comes and clarifies the confusing areas included during within the reading of the text.  The predictor then predicts regarding the author that the next group will tell and if it becomes the literary selection then the predictor will suggest the next events. The switched up from one student to the other within the classroom to take active participation in it. As a teacher, the guidance regarding their role is mainly provided by in the classroom.

3. Evidence-based practices are considered to be more important for the person with disabilities as it helps them in recognizing the desired text of the story.  The evidence-based practice is the desired instructional strategy, teaching program or the intervention which helps in understanding the text completely.  The evidence-based practices are mainly based on the scientifically based research and this also reflects the fact that the intervention needs to be supported by a strong research in order to make the desired candidate understand perfectly.   These uses the sound research design in making the students identifying the desired facts related to the study.  The knowledge and the experiences gathered from the professionals critically help the student to enhance his or her learning skills related to the particular study (McCorkle, 2012).  The practice crucially gets labeled as to be the evidence-based practices when it is supported by the desired list of strong scientific research (Rogers, 2009).   It is very imported t to understudy the basic differences between the research-based practices and the evidence-based practices as it will help understanding the desired story in a perfect way.  The research-based study is related to only the facts and the figures but the evidence based helps in identifying and recognizing the main and the important elements of the story. Moreover, the evidence-based practices support as well as evaluates the facts related to academic, behavioral, social and the intervention practices which is quite different from that of research-based practices.

Cooperative learning is an evidence-based instructional format that has been found effective for students with and without disabilities. Research studies have identified several important components of an effective cooperative learning activity, including: (1) positive interdependence,  (2) individual accountability, (3) identifying and explicitly teaching social skills, and (4) spending time on group processing / debriefing. Describe each of the four components listed above, and explain why each is important.

Frustration reading level

4. Cooperative is considered to be very important s it helps in providing complete knowledge to the persons with or without having the disabilities.  There are certainly important elements which help in making the cooperative learning an effective one for the concerned students. First is the positive interdependence, it is the element which consists of the collaborative and the cooperative learning where the individuals perceive and share the common goals in order to bring out the desired understanding from the study.  It is very important to understand to understand that the success and the benefits critically depend on the active participation of the members. Next is the individual accountability which accounts for the desired performance of the individuals during learning (Tate and Phillips, 2013). The third one is the identification and exploitation of the desired social teaching skills.  This helps in identification the required skills for teaching the students as per the requirement and it increases the skills of the concerned students. Finally, element is the spending time on the processing of the group, it evaluates the desired concepts and the important facts related to the learning activities.  

Positive interdependence increases the collaborating ability of the concerned individuals working within a particular group. The individuality accountability is important to monitor and increase the overall performances of the concerned individuals. Identification of the social teaching skills in bringing out the positive ideas in the people concerned, this evaluates the positive idea within the people. The group processing is important in order to develop the perfect concept related to a particular topic and it also clarifies the doubts of the various individuals of the group.

Mr. Rivera is a special education teacher who works with middle school students with behavior problems. All of his students are struggling academically and lack motivation to focus on academic tasks. Mr. Rivera has read the research on cooperative learning and believes that if he provides opportunities for his students to work cooperatively together, they might be more engaged in academic tasks. However, their behavior problems sometimes interfere with their ability to work cooperatively. Use what you know about matching the type of cooperative activity to the skills and experiences of the students, and select TWO cooperative structures that you would recommend Mr. Rivera try in his classroom.  Describe each structure and justify why it would be a good choice for an initial cooperative learning activity with this group of students.

5. There are five of the most important elements of the cooperative learning that helps in enhancing the desired skills and the ability of the students within the classroom. In these five elements, two elements such as positive interdependence and interpersonal skills are considered to be of great importance. These will help Mr. Rivera to enhance the effectiveness and the capability of the students within the classroom (Uden, 2012). The positive interdependence brings out the efforts of all the individuals to achieve the goals of the group. It enhances the performances of the individuals concerned within the group. Next is the interpersonal skill of the individuals or the students concerned. These consists of the basic teamwork ability such as to be the effective leader and to make perfect and the suitable decisions.  Moreover, the students or the individuals concerned should know to resolve the conflicts that arise sometimes within the group members. Decision-making, managing the conflicts, completing the desired tasks, communication and the appreciation given to the other team members are considered very important to bring out the desired success (Uden, 2012).

References

Barkley, E., Major, C. and Cross, K. (2014). Collaborative learning techniques. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Buch, K. and Barron, K. (2012). Discipline-Centered Learning Communities. New York: Wiley.

Hsiung, C., Luo, L. and Chung, H. (2014). Early identification of ineffective cooperative learning teams.Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30(6), pp.534-545.

McCorkle, B. (2012). Rhetorical delivery as technological discourse. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

Rogers, P. (2009). Encyclopedia of distance learning. Hershey, Pa.: IGI Global (701 E. Chocolate Avenue, Hershey, Pennsylvania, 17033, USA).

Tate, M. and Phillips, W. (2013). Science Worksheets Don't Grow Dendrites. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.

Uden, L. (2012). Workshop on learning technology for education in a cloud (LTEC'12). Berlin: Springer.

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