Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote

MARS model

Discuss about the Collective Organizational Linking Motivational.

The managers all agree that in this century it demand that there should be efficiency and productivity in the business in order to be the market leaders. Most of the businesses are striving this in order to increase on their performance. Many organizations have been grappling with many challenges in order to succeed in order to be ahead of the competitors (Bakker, Albrecht and Leiter, 2011). Various scholars and researcher have contributed to helping the companies with the best techniques on increasing on the organizational performance. In order to achieve on the objectives, organizations need to develop on the strategies to compete on the highly competitive market so as to increase on their performance. This could be achieved through concepts such as total quality management and the business process Reengineering. Nonetheless, there are few organization that may consider on the human capital as the primary asset that is effective at leading them to success (Hanks, 2015). In the event that the staff are not delighted by their work they are generally not motivated to rewarding on their duties and also their goals. Technological know-how nowadays possesses permitted numerous company to utilize the advanced strategies of operation (Van den Berg, Bakker and Ten Cate, 2013). As the sophistication these technologies proceeds to develop , these are posing a far more difficulties to the managers mainly because business should require a lot more variety of the employees with the increase in the technical and professional abilities . The staff involvement as a principle is substantial. It is critical to appreciate this concept distinct scholars possess the following indicating of motivation and employee engagement. Generally worker motivation is focused on getting something in turn for the effort they possess put (Hanks, 2015). Worker are encouraged by the notion of getting a bonus, rewards or maybe recognition. Furthermore, they could be inspired to seize much more duties and get trumpeted. The satisfaction of these employee is what makes them happy. Motivation is the key influencer on the human behavior, and in fact some form of motivation is essential to all behavior, whether the basest of the instinctive response or perhaps the complex of the organizational tasks.

Workers On the essay it is going to examine on the usage of the fundamental motivational concepts in improving on the staff engagement. Engagement is the facet of the partnership between the enterprise and staff. A worker who have been employed is the one who may have been assimilated by and obsessed with their work thus takes positive action to be able to further the repute and interests of the business .Any organization that has a high engagement with the employees is expected to outperform those with the low employee engagement (Van den Berg, Bakker and Ten Cate, 2013). Some of these theories that will be highlighted are MARS model, content theory, and the process theory. Additionally, the essay will show the comparison and the contrast that exists between them.

Content theory

MARS model of personal conduct is the model which seeks to extravagant on the conduct of the persons due to the internal as well as the external aspects. The names of the model are acronym for motivation, Abilities, role perception, and the situational factors. These are the four major factors in determining on the individuals behavior and the results. The application of this model might be used to several circumstances in the organization (Soane, Truss, Alfes, Shantz, Rees and Gatenby, 2012). The model could be applied in the management, or the organizational studies. On the use of the model represent the four factors which have mixed effects on the individual performance. In the event of any factor weakens, the performance would decrease.

Motivation is the inner psychological factors which drive to the alterations of the conduct of the staff and result in the effectiveness of the overall performance. It should be noted that motivation is a continuous process which need to be sustained as well as develop due to individuals and the organizational factors that tends to change over time (Soane, Truss, Alfes, Shantz, Rees and Gatenby, 2012). The managers must make sure that every staff is motivated at work to ensuring that they feel contented so that they can improve on the performance in the dispensing effectual services (Schlager and Weible, 2013). These kind of elements are intertwined as an example of information analyst in a company is skilled in functioning of the report ( ability ) , the individual is self-taught about how to utilize the latest highlights of order to extrapolate the data ( role perception ), however this person might not possess the necessary usage of the data files ( situational factors ) . It is critical that each one of these aspects of the MARS model to be satisfied, worker behavior and performance will likely be afflicted adversely.

The content theory describes exactly why the human requires alterations with time. The content theory consist of the work of David McClelland, and Abraham Maslow who attempted to describe why the human needs change, but not just how they change (Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004). The theories describe on particular aspects which motivate behaviour and employee engagement. The content theory which focusses on the employee engagement and motivation is the Maslow hierarchy of requirements. With this philosophy Maslow considered that every individuals has needs and the need that should be met.  He believed that individuals are motivated to fulfilling’s on their own needs. The focus is on this theory because every person needs to focus on their own needs in order to achieve their own goals (Salanova and Schaufeli, 2008). There are certain aspects that needs to be fulfilled to be able to achieve the goals of an organization. One need to fulfill on the physiological needs, security should be there, affiliation, esteem to be able to actualize themselves (Riggio, 2015). Basic needs need to be met in the physiological need in order one to survive. Security is vital to ensure that the surrounding of an individual are not threatening them or their family. If the environment seems to be safe, it shows that there is predictability or stability to that surrounding.  Affiliation entails the need to feel a sense of belonging or be loved (Need, 2006). This theory is significant for motivation and employee engagement because every individual should be motivated in order to fulfill on their needs and to strive for the next step until they strive and become better (Neck and Houghton, 2006). All the needs identified in this theory motivate the humans thus they start to care for themselves and live a rich life.

Advantage of the Maslow theory to other content theory

The advantage of the Maslow theory to the other content theory is its discerning insight into the human nature. It provides to interpret on the human behaviour and motivation (Moors, Ellsworth, Scherer and Frijda, 2013). Furthermore, it is significance in the present day use, much more on the globe of enterprise enables it to be more exceptional than the rest of the content theories. An example of the applicability, is when the managers benefit from the understanding of the employees basic human needs such as friendship, security of job, recognition for all the work they do well (Macey and Schneider, 2008). Additionally, creating of the environment that meets on these need could result to self-actualization of the team members who operate on their full potential for the business. The applicability of the theory is the most used especially to the developing countries especially where money is still used as the main motivating factor (Hanks, 2015). An example of an organization that has used Maslow theory is Tesco. The diagram below shows the Maslow hierarchy of needs pyramids on the essential needs.

The process theory could be used in connection to the human motivation. It attempts to explain on the mechanism by which the human needs change (Macey and Schneider, 2008). Using the process theory, individual’s measures on how the events in the specific process could lead to the outcome. The companies could use the theory to produce an outcome, they should duplicate on the process that is used to derive this means to explain on the needs of changes of employees. The process theory to choose from is the expectancy theory (Hanks, 2015). The theory plans that a person need to act in a particular method since they are motivated to choose a particular behavior over further behaviors as a result of whatever they are anticipate the consequence of that behavior that is chosen . The motivation as well as the engagement of the employees is contingent on the attractiveness of the result. The core of the theory is the cognitive means of precisely how an individual procedures the numerous aspects of motivation (Halbesleben and Bowler, 2007). This is normally carried out before making the final choice. You should notice that this is not such the sole deciding cause of creating the choice of just how they act. The principle is about the psychological techniques concerning the option, or maybe deciding on. It emphasizes on the processes, which an individual goes through to render the options. The theory emphasizes on the requires of the business to associate the benefits right to the performance in order to make sure that the rewards which are offered are those who are needed or maybe desired by the recipients (Halbesleben and Bowler, 2007). Employee engagement and motivation entails the means of regulating choices among the choices kinds of the voluntary actions, the method is controlled by the individuals. The people ought to render choices according to the estimates of precisely how well the outcomes which are estimated of a particular behavior are likely to match up or simply contributes to the ideal outcomes (Gupta, Chiles and McMullen, 2016). The motivation is normally the product of the person expectancy that particular effort could possibly lead to the designed performance. Further, I will put light on advantages of expectancy theory and disadvantages of other process theory.

Process theory

The advantage of the expectancy theory is that it offers a framework for considering precisely how person tends to make choices depending on the goals (Gagné and Deci, 2005). The element on the expectations facilitate the theory to account on the differences in the selections between people irrespective of the actual level of the try vital to achieve the rewards along with the precise advantage of the rewards. The theory is usually depending on the self-interest individual who wish to attain the maximum satisfaction and who wish to reduce on the discontent. Furthermore it focuses on the psychological extravagance in which the ultimate goal of the individuals would be to attain the optimum satisfaction and least distress .In the event that a person believe his effort could have no opportunity to outcome to particular reward, that particular performance level might lead to a reward or the reward could have no value, consequently there could be absolutely no motivation to function when it comes to that individual reward (Gagné and Deci, 2005). This theory strains on the anticipation as well as perceptions on precisely what is the authentic and actual is immaterial.

Some of the disadvantage of the theory is that it advocate the negative reinforcement. The aspect of negative reinforcement could entail punishment and extinction. The managers could use punishment or even a disciplinary action to deter the unwanted behaviors (Chalofsky and Krishna, 2009). This is simply not a great way when it comes to motivation or perhaps the involvement of the staff at work. For the workers to perform their work effectively there are other ways to punish their unpleasant consequences of their undesirable behavior from repeating them again. Punishment is not a good way for advocating employee engagement plan within the organization. Moreover these theories do not perceive motivational programs as equitable outcomes towards expectation of achieving it.

How content and process theory benefits and increase employee engagements.

The content theories usually focus within an individual that energize, sustain and stop behavior. The theories usually focusses on the specific needs which motivate individuals. These theories have been helpful in the discussion of motivation as well as employee engagement. The process theories provide the description as well as evaluation of precisely how conduct is energized, continual as well as stopped. The content along with the process concepts generally offer framework for the more beneficial comprehension of motivation and the way to employ on these kinds of principles. The content theories typically concentrate on individual’s job satisfaction, behavior and reward system. The utilization of the theories is the fact individuals require deficiencies which activate tensions which is within an individual that trigger on the behavioral response (Chalofsky and Krishna, 2009). When the individuals are not receiving on what they have perceived they need, they usually would attempt to satisfy that need.

These theories recognizes that motivation usually begins with the needs of individuals. The needs are usually deficiencies that trigger on the behaviors to satisfy those needs. The use of the theories help in the creation of the job satisfaction aspect (Cartwright and Holmes, 2006). The managers could adopt on some of the proposed ways of satisfying on the employee’s needs such as opportunities to use ones talent and creativity, work interests that offer a variety on how the employer would engage employees. Additionally, organizations are able to understand on the thought processes of the employees and what influences on their behavior (Birkland, 2014). The theories highlights that the motivation of the employees depends on the desired goals as well as strengths of their expectation in achieving these goals. Understanding the underling basic would be vital to many organization on helping the workers on the possible ways of achieving those goals.

These theories have been found to improve on the engagement of the employee. The organization need to understand where it is currently and it must understand on the components of the engagement within a given organization (Barrick, Thurgood, Smith and Courtright, 2015). The use of these theories help organization on how they could treat their employees better and how to motivate them (Bond, 2015). The staff engagement is associated with the company performance results. The concepts offer details precisely how the organizations might employ employees as well as have a greater employee retention due to the decreased turnover and diminished intention to entrust that specific firm (Bono and Judge, 2003). The theories have underlined on the importance along with positive effect of the worker engagement on the results of the enterprise, failing to offer on the cost benefit analysis for engagement decision. The theories have facilitated in the development of techniques to be able to maintain workers engaged. For the managers the work for the engagement of the employee’s begins at day one by owning useful recruitment and orientation plan, it also begins at the top as it is very unthinkable to have an organization where there is no engaged leadership (Brad Shuck, Rocco and Albornoz, 2011). The essence of having these theories provides a framework of developing the best strategies that could be adopted in the organization and consequently improve on the performance.


Motivation and employee engagement are the key aspect to improve on the performance of the organization. To date there is absolutely no usually recognized description for the involvement of employee. Numerous business are contending to be able to survive in the volatile and the fierce market environment. The motivation and performance of the worker are crucial tools for the success of any administration, since it highlights on the evolution as well as the achievement of the organization. In the essay, it has highlighted on the process and the content theories on how they increase on the engagement of the employees.


Bakker, A.B., Albrecht, S.L. and Leiter, M.P., 2011. Key questions regarding work engagement. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), pp.4-28.

Barrick, M.R., Thurgood, G.R., Smith, T.A. and Courtright, S.H., 2015. Collective organizational engagement: Linking motivational antecedents, strategic implementation, and firm performance. Academy of Management journal, 58(1), pp.111-135.

Bond, M.H., 2015. How I am Constructing Culture?inclusive Theories of Social?psychological Process in our Age of Globalization. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 45(1), pp.26-39.

Bono, J.E. and Judge, T.A., 2003. Self-concordance at work: Toward understanding the motivational effects of transformational leaders. Academy of Management Journal, 46(5), pp.554-571.

Brad Shuck, M., Rocco, T.S. and Albornoz, C.A., 2011. Exploring employee engagement from the employee perspective: Implications for HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(4), pp.300-325.

Birkland, T.A., 2014. An introduction to the policy process: Theories, concepts and models of public policy making. Routledge.

Cartwright, S. and Holmes, N., 2006. The meaning of work: The challenge of regaining employee engagement and reducing cynicism. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), pp.199-208.

Chalofsky, N. and Krishna, V., 2009. Meaningfulness, commitment, and engagement: The intersection of a deeper level of intrinsic motivation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(2), pp.189-203.

Gagné, M. and Deci, E.L., 2005. Self?determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26(4), pp.331-362.

Gupta, V.K., Chiles, T.H. and McMullen, J.S., 2016. A process perspective on evaluating and conducting effectual entrepreneurship research. Academy of Management Review, 41(3), pp.540-544.

Halbesleben, J.R. and Bowler, W.M., 2007. Emotional exhaustion and job performance: the mediating role of motivation. Journal of applied psychology, 92(1), p.93.

Hanks, S.H., 2015. The organization life cycle: Integrating content and process. Journal of Small Business Strategy, 1(1), pp.1-12.

Macey, W.H. and Schneider, B., 2008. The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and organizational Psychology, 1(1), pp.3-30.

Moors, A., Ellsworth, P.C., Scherer, K.R. and Frijda, N.H., 2013. Appraisal theories of emotion: State of the art and future development. Emotion Review, 5(2), pp.119-124.

Neck, C.P. and Houghton, J.D., 2006. Two decades of self-leadership theory and research: Past developments, present trends, and future possibilities. Journal of managerial psychology, 21(4), pp.270-295.

Need, W.C.D.H.P., 2006. Human resource management: Gaining a competitive advantage.

Riggio, R., 2015. Introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Routledge.

Salanova, M. and Schaufeli, W.B., 2008. A cross-national study of work engagement as a mediator between job resources and proactive behaviour. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(1), pp.116-131.

Schaufeli, W.B. and Bakker, A.B., 2004. Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi?sample study. Journal of organizational Behavior, 25(3), pp.293-315.

Schlager, E. and Weible, C.M., 2013. New theories of the policy process. Policy Studies Journal, 41(3), pp.389-396.

Soane, E., Truss, C., Alfes, K., Shantz, A., Rees, C. and Gatenby, M., 2012. Development and application of a new measure of employee engagement: the ISA Engagement Scale. Human Resource Development International, 15(5), pp.529-547.

Van den Berg, B.A.M., Bakker, A.B. and Ten Cate, T.J., 2013. Key factors in work engagement and job motivation of teaching faculty at a university medical centre. Perspectives on medical education, 2(5-6), pp.264-275.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Collective Organizational Linking Motivational: Using MARS, Content, And Process Theories To Improve Staff Engagement. Retrieved from

"Collective Organizational Linking Motivational: Using MARS, Content, And Process Theories To Improve Staff Engagement." My Assignment Help, 2018,

My Assignment Help (2018) Collective Organizational Linking Motivational: Using MARS, Content, And Process Theories To Improve Staff Engagement [Online]. Available from:
[Accessed 15 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Collective Organizational Linking Motivational: Using MARS, Content, And Process Theories To Improve Staff Engagement' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <> accessed 15 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Collective Organizational Linking Motivational: Using MARS, Content, And Process Theories To Improve Staff Engagement [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 15 July 2024]. Available from:

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Plagiarism checker
Verify originality of an essay
Generate unique essays in a jiffy
Plagiarism checker
Cite sources with ease
sales chat
sales chat