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Comparison of the Financial Statements for the last 5 years

Discuss about the Commonwealth Bank for Modern Economic Growth.

The Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA) is a multinational bank and it has its business relationship with various countries like New Zealand, Fiji, USA, and UK and even with various Asian countries.  Apart from services like retail banking, institutional banking, brokerage services it also provides various other financial services.  The Commonwealth Bank was founded in 1911 by the Australian government and it is one the big four Australian banks alongside National Australian Bank (NAB) and Westpac (Commonwealth Bank, 2016). The bank was fully privatized in 1996. The Commonwealth Bank is the only financial institution to have appeared in the Dream Employer's top 20 list of preferred employers for 2010 and 2011.

Income Statement

The relevant figures extracted from the Annual Report and the Percentage of Increase / Decrease in comparison to the prior year is presented below:

Particulars

2012

2013

% Increase

2014

% Increase

2015

% Increase

2016

% Increase

Interest Income

   38,258

   34,739

-9%

   33,645

-3%

   34,100

1%

   33,817

-1%

Interest Expenses

   25,136

   20,805

-17%

   18,544

-11%

   18,305

-1%

   16,882

-8%

NET Interest Income

   13,122

   13,934

6%

   15,101

8%

   15,795

5%

   16,935

7%

Non Interest Revenue

     8,935

   10,128

13%

   10,667

5%

   11,210

5%

   10,562

-6%

Total NET Revenue

   22,057

   24,062

9%

   25,768

7%

   27,005

5%

   27,497

2%

Income before Taxes

     9,964

   10,728

8%

   11,997

12%

   12,612

5%

   12,854

2%

Net Income After Tax

     7,090

     7,677

8%

     8,631

12%

     9,063

5%

     9,227

2%

EPS - Basic

4.46

4.75

7%

5.31

12%

5.54

4%

5.42

-2%

On the revenue side, Interest Income is the major source of revenue, but it is seen that the interest income is falling constantly year after year.

In comparison to this, the interest expenses are also decreasing every year thus leading to an increase in the Net Interest Income every year. The Non Interest Revenue, comprising of commissions and fees and other income is steadily increasing every year till 2015 but has fallen by 6% for 2016 (Commonwealth Bank, 2016). The Non Interest Expenses comprises of Compensation and benefits, Tech, communication and equipments, Amortization of Intangibles and Other Expenses. An overall increasing trend is observed in the non interest expenses (Nzuve, 2011).

The resultant figure is the Income from Continuing Operations which is also increasing every year but at a diminishing rate. The proportion of increase of 8% and 12% in 2013 and 2014 has fallen to 5% and 2% in 2015 and 2016 respectively.

After the deduction of non operating expenses like provision for taxes and other expenses, the resultant figure is Net Income available to Common Shareholders. The same trend as Income from Continuing Operations is observed here.

EPS has increased during 2013 and 2014 but started falling in 2015 and has also gone negative in 2016. Overall, it can be said that CBA has achieved good income and profitability levels in 2013 and 2014 but the momentum is not being carried on and 2015 marks the commencement of the fall in incomes and profits (Coyle, 2014).

The relevant figures extracted from the Annual Report and the Percentage of Increase / Decrease in comparison to the prior year is presented below:

Particulars

2012

2013

% Increase

2014

% Increase

2015

% Increase

2016

% Increase

Derivative Assets

38,937

45,340

16%

29,247

-35%

46,154

58%

46,567

1%

Debt Securities

92,046

96,765

5%

1,05,342

9%

1,19,111

13%

1,32,768

11%

Net Loans

5,25,682

5,56,648

6%

5,97,781

7%

6,39,262

7%

6,95,398

9%

Premises

2,503

2,718

9%

2,816

4%

2,833

1%

3,940

39%

Goodwill

7,705

7,723

0%

7,566

-2%

7,599

0%

7,925

4%

Other Intangible Assets

2,576

2,700

5%

2,226

-18%

2,371

7%

2,459

4%

Other Assets

48,780

41,982

-14%

46,473

11%

56,116

21%

44,021

-22%

Total Assets

7,18,229

7,53,876

5%

7,91,451

5%

8,73,446

10%

9,33,078

7%

Deposits

4,37,655

4,59,429

5%

4,98,352

8%

5,43,231

9%

5,88,045

8%

Derivative Liabilities

39,221

38,580

-2%

27,259

-29%

35,213

29%

39,921

13%

Payables

9,561

10,050

5%

10,467

4%

11,105

6%

9,774

-12%

Short-term Borrowing

1,56,555

1,64,793

5%

1,72,224

5%

1,92,789

12%

1,91,486

-1%

Other Liabilities

34,196

36,069

5%

34,338

-5%

38,677

13%

43,646

13%

Total Liabilities

6,77,188

7,08,921

5%

7,42,640

5%

8,21,015

11%

8,72,872

6%

Stockholders Equity

Preferred Stock

939

Common Stock

25,175

27,262

8%

27,975

3%

28,558

2%

33,845

19%

Retained Earnings

13,356

16,360

22%

18,827

15%

21,528

14%

23,627

10%

Accumulated Other
Comprehensive Income

1,571

1,333

-15%

2,009

51%

2,345

17%

2,734

17%

Total Shareholders’ Equity

41,041

44,955

10%

48,811

9%

52,431

7%

60,206

15%

The Total Assets have steadily increased by 5% in 2013 and 2014 but 2015 has seen an increase of 10% and 2016 of 7% respectively. The same is the case with the increase in the figures of total liabilities. Shareholders’ Equity has increased by 10%, 9%, 7% and 15% for the years 2013 to 2016 respectively.

As assets and liabilities are constantly changing figures, the ups and downs are quite evident, but overall the company is growing and the shareholders equity represented as a part of the retained earnings and accumulated other incomes is displaying a healthy growth (Dawson, 2006). 

Income Statement

The Commonwealth Bank is Australia's biggest retail bank which provides variety of products and services which includes providing loans, credit card transaction and savings account. The bank has largest branch and ATM network. It also provides services to people who intend to move to Australia (Australian Government, 2013).

Commonwealth Bank is one the most important banks of Australia.  It not only derives profit but also finances from income earned through activities which has caused destruction to the Great Barrier Reef.  Because of such activity the bank has faced a lot of scrutiny from public and has come under extreme pressure after a report by Market Forces in 2013.

In 2014 the Commonwealth Bank came under a lot of pressure and they were asked to withdraw their investment on every mining project that would threaten the reef. It was revealed later 2014 that CBA had advised Indian coal miner Adani on its proposed development in Galilee Basin in Queensland.

A report by Market Forces in 2015 that CBA was the single biggest investor in projects concerning fossil fuels, during the six year period from 2008-2014, within the Great Barrier World Heritage Area. Immediately after the report protests were held at more than fifty branches of CBA in Australia and around the globe. A report by MSCI showed that  Australia's largest bank invested ten percent of their know loan arrangements on risky fossil fuels project which might become irrevocable if the world wanted to avoid disastrous climatic change.

The former financial planner of CBA Jeff Morris made a claim to Australian Securities and Investment Commission    (AISC) about the extent of misconduct of CAB's financial planning arm, Commonwealth Financial Planning Limited (CFPL). ASICS launched an investigation after 16 months.  The Senate Inquiry found in its report that there was forgery and dishonest concealment of material facts. The Senate Inquiry concluded a Royal Commission as it was considered that AISC didn't have enough investigating powers required to disclose the extent of allegations made. After a week of Senate Inquiry, CEO Ian Narev issued an apology statement and announced a compensation scheme.  Former CEB Ralph Norris also accepted the fact that he was aware of the problems that existed within CFPL but denied claim that there was any conspiracy for covering the cracks.

New required adjustments in balance sheet (new provision of funds) and their description

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision issued the Pillar 3 disclosure requirements which aim at market discipline and requires bank to have sufficient credit standing to meet the market and operational risks due to the exposure to risk weighed assets.

As a result of this disclosure requirement, the Notes to Balance Sheet sets out the Tier I and Tier II risk weighted capital ratios. Apart from the regulatory adjustments to Tier I, the additional Basel III complying instruments of $5,000 M are set aside as PERLS VI & PERLS VII Capital Notes were issued by the bank. The other instruments that were not eligible to be complying instruments for Basel were either redeemed or called back and cancelled by the bank.

Balance Sheet

As markets and business conditions have become increasingly complex, these notes were critically reviewed to be offering lower returns with higher risk. Thus, the required arrangements were made by the bank in terms of additional fund raising in light of the new requirements of the Basel Committee (Horton & Ganainy, 2010).

In 2016 it was revealed that some Of CBA staff were involved in  a fraud amounted to 76million dollars and those staff involved received secret commission for their role in this claimed fraud which was organized by the management of the bank for almost five years before the police were altered. The CBA initially prevented the release of internal documents and emails but was but were ordered by the court to hand over those documents to one of the victims named Nick Fotopoulos, a property developer in Melbourne,  who lost five millions and he also launched a civil action against the bank. The spokesperson of CBA did not comment on the situation while the matter was before court.

Many of the financial planners of CBA have been banned by the Australian Securities and Investment Commission for providing inappropriate advices and for charging extra commissions and fees and in some cases it was claimed that they committed act of fraud (Osborne, 2009).

Recently Commonwealth Bank of Australia revealed its view that is has found every one out of ten files missing of customers who applied for checking of their records, accounts and investments as a part of the bank's compensation scheme (Brealey et. al, 2011).

Commonwealth Bank of Australia has decided to reinvent its way of dealing with the customers.  The idea of making customers the focal point within the traditionally assets driven industries which includes manufacturing and financial services, is a complex challenge (Horton & Ganainy, 2010).  Instead of focusing on the desire of customers the organization had focused more on running the assets.  Too much time, energy and money have been spent on the products and infrastructure. This is in direct contrast to the functioning of an organization that focuses of customer's wants (Choi & Meek, 2011).

As per the list of Customer Service Champions,  the organization that have focused on what the customers want have done really well,  some of them are Amazon.com and ING Direct.  Several local Australia brands have also excelled in this area and the most notable performer has been Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA).

In 2006 CBA launched their vision by putting the wellbeing of the customer at the centre of everything.  The goal set by the organization was simple yet challenging that is to meet the expectations of the customer across of the business area.  With the vision of fulfilling customers` expectations their main aim, CBA looked for new ways of with customers in a better way and giving them the services they seek for (Whittington, 2008). 

In the case of commonwealth bank, the conceptual framework underlines the process of financial reporting. The main benefit that accrues is that the system is well established and a continuous flow is maintained. The purpose of financial reporting is properly ascertained. The concept has provided immense benefit to CBA in terms of identification of the boundary of financial reporting, transaction selection, recognition and measurement and summary (Acemoglu, 2011).

CBA is a standout performer in the Australian market.  Almost a decade ago, the organization decided to refresh it's method of dealing with customers.  This idea was lead by then CEO Ralph Norris and today it's continuing under current CEO Ian Narev.  Mr. Narev announced that the group would build on this idea and the organization believed that there are four key areas which needs to be taken care of and are capable of continuing the vision of the organization.  Those four key areas are - people, technology strength and productivity (Enria, 2014). Further it can be said that the coming years will be prosperous for the bank owing to the new standards and leadership.

Conclusion

On a concluding note it can be said that the Commonwealth wealth bank is a strong runner in the Australian market and that can be witnessed by the financial statements. It has made commendable progress and has stressed on every aspect of development. Going by the above report it can be said that though there have been scandals and manipulations in the past yet it has managed to remove the problems. Overall, the performance is strong and is expected to continue the journey.

References

Acemoglu, D. (2011). Introduction to Modern Economic Growth. Princeton University Press, 2011).

Australian Government (2013). Budget Strategy and Outlook, Budget Paper: Commonwealth of Australia, Retrieved August 19, 2016, from https://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/organizations_fasb.html

Brealey, R., Myers, S. and Allen, F. (2011).  Principles of corporate finance. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Choi, R.D. and Meek, G.K., (2011). International accounting. Pearson .

Commonwealth Bank. (2016). Commonwealth Bank annual report 2016, Retrieved August 20, 2016, from https://www.commbank.com.au/about-us/shareholders/financial-information/results.html

Coyle, D. (2014). GDP: A Brief but Affectionate History. Princeton University Press.

Dawson, G. (2006). Economics and Economic Change. Prentice Hall.

Enria, F. (2014). Disclosure of Accommodative Monetary Policy meaning. SA: Frank Enria.

Horton, M and Ganainy, El. (2010). Fiscal policy: taking and giving away, International Monetary Fund, Oxford Press.

Nzuve. S, (2011).  Some Thoughts of How to Allocate Indirect Costs in a Corporate Environment, Social Science Research network, School of Business, University of Nairobi. Retrieved August 19, 2016, from <https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2141692>

Osborne, P (2009). Storm Financial collapse plan outlined. The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved August 19, 2016, from https://www.smh.com.au//breaking-news-business/storm-financial-collapse-plan-outlined-20090810-ef9y.html

Whittington, G (2008) Harmonization or Discord? The critical role of the IASB conceptual framework review. Journal of Accounting & Public Policy, 27(6), 44-56

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