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Scenario/ Background

Discuss about the CPR Training for Surf Life Guarding.

Surf Life Guarding is a renowned organization that provides training to the new lifeguards who aim to protect swimmers and surfers from potential dangers while carrying out their recreational activities at the sea. Working here, as the CPR trainer has been a challenging as well as a pleasing job that prepare new enthusiasts to be capable enough to save lives through cardiopulmonary resuscitation for victims with inhaled water  entry in lungs.

Providing CPR training to the lifeguards are important to teach them how to save lives of victims who have cardiac arrest due to inhalation of water in lungs. These would help saving a large number of surfers or swimmers who lose their balance and thereby face serious consequences. Giving proper education of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to the newly appointed lifeguards would help them to be expert in their field saving lives of human in distress (Adelborg et al., 2014).

While preparing an important training program for correct education and practical skills for conducting CPR by the novice lifeguards, an effective training program has to be planned and implemented. This training program can have best results if the programming and planning is done based on three important teaching models with the first being The Habermas Community Action. The trainer can get the best results if the students engage themselves in a proper communication with the teacher and developing correct meanings from them. This type of approach of the trainers would help in developing knowledge, self reflection and others among the students. This also helps the students to obtain their limit of the capacity so that they can integrate self-awareness providing actions that will help them to transform themselves correctly to successful lifeguards and implement their knowledge there.

Another teaching model that a trainer of CPR can apply is Kolb’s experimental learning model where the trainer can create real life like situations for practical experiences that would help the students to develop courage of handling emergencies an take the right decisions (Larson & Marsh, 2014). Experimental learning have been always found to have a very positive effect on the career of the lifeguards as their learning during the training have often helped them to act quickly with correct sets of actions. Developing both theoretical and practical knowledge in the four stages of gaining concrete experiences, its reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation would be the most suitable model found for the training of CPR programs for lifeguards (Baker & Insurance, 2014).


The trainer can also implement reflection based training programs that will also help the students  to gain a lot of insights into the world of saving lives with the help of correct technique of CPR. The trainer can utilize this theory or the experiences in properly reflecting her own experiences as a lifeguard faced by her colleagues or ex students and can cite them as examples to her students to describe the proper ways and the issues faced and how to overcome those challenges (Wilkens & Brons, 2014). This is often seen to develop the learning experiences among students with skills that only theoretical knowledge cannot provide. This type of teaching also makes the learning procedures interesting for a student.

In order to plan a training program, a detailed planning is very necessary to carry out the training program of CPR for lifeguards so that there arises no any confusion among the students and enough resources are available for smooth conductance of the class. Out of all the 5 important members allocated to facilitate the training program every individual has to perform their assigned task diligently. Out of them, the first one should discuss out the entire planning to every of the members and would mainly be the monitoring lead of the group. The second one would mainly perform the research part required for efficient training purposes. The third member would set out effective learning intentions and output with the best learning outcomes. The fourth member should be the trainer who would be present to teach them the various techniques required to be learned by them for proper application of the techniques (Moran & Webber, 2012). The fifth member would be involved in the management part like fixing the dates, venues, schedule of the classes and similar other objectives. If all the members perform their job well the training program would be successful thereby helping the learners to a great extent.

Before conducting the training sessions, a trainer should have requisite amount of knowledge about the exact requirements that the student needs to conduct CPR to victims. The attendees should be confident about the profession that they have chosen and therefore should dedicate their lives to save the lives of surfers and swimmers. So they have to be confident on themselves before learning CPR. The learners should first be taken a mini assessment or test or verbal discussion to evaluate their idea that they have about their profession. Their response in the test would help the trainer to understand and plan her teaching technique depending upon the requirement that they need to meet the criteria of lifeguards (Rasmussen, 2015). Individualistic discussion in the classes would not only help the particular learner but the others may also be benefitted from them. After knowing the various queries and areas of weaknesses of the students, the teacher should then proceed with her planned approach (Spies, Delport & Roux, 2015).

Application of Theories

The learning goals should be that the Learners can achieve a clear idea of how to conduct the important steps of cardiopulmonary resuscitation when the victims have inhaled a lot of water in their lungs resulting in cardiac arrest. All the steps should be learnt properly otherwise improper application may result in breaking of bones and many other associated negative aspects (Ramos et al., 2015).

Another important goal of the training program is to make the lifeguards realize the conditions as well as the situations when the victims are in danger and to handle the patients correctly in proper alignments and other necessary postures that requires to be maintained (Lofgreen et al., 2012). The training program therefore should not only stress upon the correct steps implementation but also on recognizing the intensity of the situation and the courage and confidence that should be maintained by the students to perform the tasks.

First objective: Learners should learn the proper steps to conduct CPR

Specific: Proper learning to carry out the steps of CPR.

Measurable: carry out practical classes with increasing frequency of application of knowledge so that the knowledge gained is sufficient.

Achievable: Evaluation of each and every step of CPR through thorough concentration

Realistic: The learning objective would be reflected in the practices of saving lives from drowning

Timebound: to complete the steps of CPR before reaching the critical situation by the victim.

Second objective: Learners should try to understand and evaluate the correct position, manner and the time in which the CPR has to be implemented.

Specific: concentrations on handling position, manner as well as time which is critical in deciding the success of CPR

Measurable: Correct observations of the trainees carrying out practical sessions in correct ways and timely manner

Achievable: Concentration in maintain position, time and manner of handling the patient needs to be achieved.:

Realistic: This can be conducted and tested to evaluate their development in skills

Timebound: completing of the aspects in timely manner (Kalz et al., 2013).

Three outcomes:

  • The learners would learn the important steps and conduct them successively.
  • The learners should be able to estimate the importance of the emergency situations and carry their activities accordingly.
  • The learners should learn the correct timing, duration, posture, pressure application and other suspects while conducting the CPR.

The training programs should contain the following contents

  • Provide physiological knowledge behind cardiac arrest and entry of water into the lungs disrupting proper supply of oxygen by blood.
  • How high quality CPR can increase the the chances of survival of the victim.
  • Explanation of the concepts of the chain of Survival.
  • Correct recognition when a victim needs the CPR
  • Perform high quality bound CPR
  • Proper giving of effective breaths using mouth to mouth and even the use of masks for all age cohorts of populations (Mabile, 2015).
  • Performing high quality CPR respectively for adults, children and also infants.
  • Recognition of the situation turning to emergency and requirement of health professional and others.

Once the learners gets acquainted with the contents of the course, he can find himself standing in a benefitting position with the knowledge of all the important steps and activities that would help in stabilizing the patients with CPR that would increase the chances of survival of the surfers. Explanation about the cohorts, correct time of recognition, handling victims and others would therefore make them successful lifeguards.

Responsibility Matrix





Day 1

9 a.m – 6 p.m with three half hour breaks

Liona Auditorium and science practice centre

Physiological background of CPR training

Demonstration of the step by step procedure of CPR along with lecture

Day 2

9 a.m – 12 p.m with two half hour breaks

Sun Life Guarding organization,, ground floor

Practical sessions with mannequins, reflective representation of the skills achieved

12 pm – 4 p.m with one one hour break

Beach in the front of the organization

On job training

Mentoring is an important training method that involves proper guidance and instruction for proper application of the teaching skills so that the trainee can gets advice from the mentors whenever he faces issues and challenges with the training and mentoring processes. This would help the lifeguards to consult the trainer whenever they face any issue with CPR (Phillips & Phillips, 2016).

On the job training method is another type of training method that helps the trainees to understand the job by experiencing working in the real situations with the assistance of the trainer and faces the challenges in real thereby giving on job knowledge from practical experiences. The trainer always remains present there so that no uncertainties take place while training and can assist them in their wrong approaches (Shepherd, 2012).

Two important tools that are used in the teaching techniques are the graphic organizers and review and reflection tools.

Learners are found to show positive responses by representation of training and thoughts of the teacher in visual techniques like presentations, videos and films that help the learners to learn and at the same time see visual images thereby becoming successful in applying the lecture into visual representations (Prakash, 2015).

The review and reflection tools are also applied by teachers that give the students scope to express themselves through review, projects, topics and would help the trainers to understand whether the students have correctly evaluated the training and had the correct gain of knowledge and skills resulting in successful career as lifeguards (Zeng et al., 2015).

These would help them to learn the important steps of CPR and also the various aspects like handling, positioning, and others of the victim with better results.


Adelborg, K., Bjørnshave, K., Mortensen, M. B., Espeseth, E., Wolff, A., & Løfgren, B. (2014). A randomised crossover comparison of mouth?to?face?shield ventilation and mouth?to?pocket?mask ventilation by surf lifeguards in a manikin. Anaesthesia, 69(7), 712-716.

Baker, S. P., & Insurance, L. M. (2014, September). Swimming Pool Safety—Risk Management Best Practices. In ASSE Professional Development Conference and Exposition. American Society of Safety Engineers.

Kalz, M., Klerkx, J., Parra Chico, G. A., Elsner, J., Haberstroh, M., Ternier, S., ... & Specht, M. (2013). EMuRgency: Addressing cardiac arrest with socio-technical innovation in a smart learning region. Interaction Design and Architecture (s), 2013(17), 77-91.

Larson, J., & Marsh, J. (2014). Making literacy real: Theories and practices for learning and teaching. Sage.

Løfgren, B., Adelborg, K., Mortensen, M. B., Nielsen, L. H., Dalgas, C., & Al-Mashhadi, R. H. (2012). Ventilation with i-gel Supraglottic Airway Compared with Mouth-to--Pocket Mask Ventilation Reduces Interruptions in Chest Compressions During Single-Rescuer Lifeguard CPR: A Randomized Simulation Study. Circulation, 126(Suppl 21), A272-A272.

Mabile, R. (2015). Auditing Cpr Skills For Campus Recreation Student Employees.

Moran, K., & Webber, J. (2012). Surf lifeguard perceptions and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 6(1), 5.

Mundell, W. C., Kennedy, C. C., Szostek, J. H., & Cook, D. A. (2013). Simulation technology for resuscitation training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation, 84(9), 1174-1183.

Phillips, J. J., & Phillips, P. P. (2016). Handbook of training evaluation and measurement methods. Routledge.

Prakash, S. (2015). Creation of Tools for Certification of Training centres nd Traines for job roles in the Garment Industry. NIFT.

Ramos, W., Beale, A., Chambers, P., Dalke, S., Fielding, R., Kublick, L., ... & Wernicki, P. (2015). Primary and Secondary Drowning Interventions: The American Red Cross Circle of Drowning Prevention and Chain of Drowning Survival. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 9(1), 8.

Rasmussen, J. (2015). Lifeguard fitness readiness: Certification vs. qualification.

Shepherd, A. J. (2012). Second-order methods for neural networks: Fast and reliable training methods for multi-layer perceptrons. Springer Science & Business Media.

Spies, G. M., Delport, C. S., & le Roux, M. P. (2015). Developing Safety and Risk Assessment Tools and Training Materials A Researcher-practice Dialogue. Research on social work practice, 25(6), 670-680.

Wilkens, K., & Brons, R. (2014). European Qualifications Framework for the Lifeguard Profession. In Drowning (pp. 369-373). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Zeng, X., Zhang, Y., Kwong, J. S., Zhang, C., Li, S., Sun, F., ... & Du, L. (2015). The methodological quality assessment tools for preclinical and clinical studies, systematic review and meta?analysis, and clinical practice guideline: a systematic review. Journal of Evidence?Based Medicine, 8(1), 2-10.

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