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E-Learning Culture

Compose a theoretically sound and conceptually rich essay demonstrating your knowledge of fundamental subject areas in your academic discipline and specialization.

In the following assignment report some important learning factors are taken to for analysis. Various prospects are discussed with deep analysis from traditional theories. At the very beginning part E-learning is discussed with its process. Purpose of E-Learning and culture of e-learning is highlighted in the following report for profound analysis. The next subject matter is about concept and significance of e leadership is discussed in the report to understand meaning of the subject. Some important key factors and steps required to implement in E-Learning is elaborated. Three different theories are taken to for discussion about e-learning system. There are comparison between these three individual theory are done n later part. First theory is about the behaviorism of e-learning system. Second one is about cognitive theory of e-learning system (Clark and Mayer 2011). In this theory the significance of e-learning rather the knowledge volume is discussed. Two case studies is done in the assignment to justify the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning system. Case study one is given a positive feedback, but in case study II there is negativity of learner’s feedback happened there. The last part is about the constructivism theory of e-learning is with depth analysis. There are some expertise opinion is given to make the assignment authentic. Relationships between the theories are given in the later part. After all discussion the controversy about the theory is given at the last of the assignment (Garrison 2011).

E-Learning is a method of delivering education to students through a network of various electronic media devices simultaneously (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2012).  Though e-learning is not a new method of instruction, it is an increasing demand by learners, and is a large discussion in academic settings (Cox, 2013; Wan, Compeau, & Haggerty, 2012). 

Needs of e-learning students are similar to the needs of traditional face-to-face learners, and continuous assessments of their learning progress is crucial.  The process of change from face-to-face to e-learning courses may be challenging, may require more time for both learner and educator, and may demand additional organization processes to ensure learner has basic understanding of e-learning platforms (Alzaghoul, 2012).

Now day’s people are very busy with their profession, so cannot manage time to go any university or grade school to completed further professional degree. The purpose of e-learning is to allow people to complete a degree without attending physically in learning institute. E-learning provides any types of learning that can happen a computer only. Primarily e-learning facilitate through internet but DVDs and CD ROMs are used for video or audio learning system is also under e-learning system (Moore et al., 2011).

Purpose

E-learning is not a particular subject but it is theory based on social educational system.  The concept E-learning directly relates with education which means a concern medium is deployed to teach others. The matter is not about to teach only but transforming the future of a particular way of learning. The way of education in E-learning through some specified subject. The matter is not to learn only the techniques for subjects to make good score and pass the respective examinations, but educate about the subject concept. Every learning subject is somehow related to social human life. The significance of subject is to apply the learning outcomes from the books to reality (Rennie and Morrison, 2013). The educational websites make understand the students but not guide them to memories about the subject matter. Educational management has to reinforce by enhancing teaching material and concepts of functionalities for public education. It is required to achieve quality universal education. This is what called a significant example of education system and aspects for every educational leader to follow.

All the learning websites efforts aim to improve teaching and learning. This depends only on the educational sites. But there are huge differences in the process how they go about it. Some website rather the educational leaders try to improve the learning materials, at the same time other taking attempts to influence the overall approach to teaching systems (Horton 2011). Here is the basic difference between formations of teaching system. Some other educational sites are trying to focus on innovative curriculum activity. They believe it is another way to choose profession not only by studying the traditional scriptures. Education must be learning for live life, not carry it as certificates. This is most important influence should understand by learner.

Behaviorism theory involves examining human behavior through scientific research as a stimulus is exposed.  The stimulus may be external, and there are three categories associated with these external responses, which may be directed towards “cause-and-effect” relationships.  The three categories include classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning theory (Alzaghoul, 2012; McLeod, 2016; Washington, 2016).

Classical conditioning is associated with “trial-and-error” and association in terms of education, and timing greatly impacts the results of the learner’s response.  If e-learning is introduced to a learner, who has little to no experience with online education, the learner may not adapt well to the learning environment and not perform to expectations. The learners association to e-learning is negative and may reject any forms of online courses. Therefore, proper exposure and online pre-assessments should be examined to view if a learner is ready for e-learning based education (Korucu and 2011).

Concept and Significance

Operant conditioning is where learning occurs by the process of consequences or rewards.  The environment should shape the learner to assist desired outcomes to be reached.  For e-learning, this process may include small or short self-study modules with a positive response or feedback generated after completion. Many online programs offer these, such as Canvas. Canvas allows the learner to complete short modules on difficult content.  Once the small module is completed with a satisfactory grade, the instructor may preset positive statements for the learner to encourage them as they progress.  After all modules are completed with a satisfactory grade, the end result is a grade (Mustafa and Sharif 2011).

Social learning is based more on modeling behavior.  In the sense of education, a learner observes another student performing well, therefore attempts to mock or model the other learner to achieve the same outcome. Within social learning, there are four mediational processes examined.  The idea is to identify if the learner is observing a behavior and imitating, or if learning is actually occurring.  To assess if learning is established, the instructor will apply the appropriate level of education to the course, present exams or methods of assessment, and evaluate if the learner can process the information in their own way by providing thought provoking discussions to the content (Library and Information Science).

The basis behind e-learning was speculated on the thought of which learning is a change in observable behavior caused by the external stimuli in the environment (Alzaghoul, 2012).  Behaviorist directs their theory on the observed behavior and identifies whether learning has occurred.  To evaluate if the learning process is progressing towards standards, the learners will be informed of the explicit outcomes, have specific expectations, and gauge if their learning is advancing.  To evaluate advancement, learners will be presented with the outcomes in each of the online lesson sessions.  Learners will be examined per outcome, which then the instructor may assess and identify if the objectives are met to a satisfactory level (Cheung and Vogel 2013).

Cognitive nature of e-learning shows the ability to impulsively restructure someone’s knowledge in many ways adapting reply to fundamentally changing situational demands to facilitate transfer of skills and knowledge to novel learning situations. According to author Spiro, learning activities must provide various representations with different subjects (Huang. and Huang 2012).  An e-learner when comes to learn about the subject of his profession the wants various prospects related to subject. Basically E-learning is depends on internet and search engine. Any learner can search any subject through internet. Every information are there in the learning site which can guide a learner properly. The assumptions of cognitive theory for limited working memory used to process accurate information and big and long –term memory used to keep knowledge which is subsequently used. The instructions are given to store different information in long term memory. After understanding the total concept and procedures of the information consists of everything that is learned. Long term memory can be change into positivity by learning. It can be assumed that nothing is learned if there is no change in long term memory (Verbert, et al., 2013).

Influences student learning

The cognitive theory is used for generating wide range of instructional process. The procedures are designed to reduce superfluous memory load in order to facilitate the storing capacity of knowledge in long term memory. One of the procedures is based on the fleeting information effect. This kind of effect is nearly associated with use of instructional technology for presentation of information. 

According to expertise like Bruner (1990) and Vygotsky (1978) e-learning theories were advanced. Constructivism learning theory is elaborated as lively construction of new knowledge for learners’ primary experience. Learners can actively construct their own knowledge by mediating input knowledge from outer world to determine the learning subject. Learning is not about passive reception of teaching but it is about active effort and mental work (Arsyad 2011).

The e-learning settings in constructivism to follow some goals these are as follows:

  • In knowledge construction process self awareness is focused strongly.
  • Multiple mode of presentation is encouraged in e-learning
  • Appreciation and experience are provided for multiple perspectives.
  • Knowledge from the experience is provided for construction process.

Honebein (1996) and Murphy (1997) had elaborated a synopsis for constructivism characteristics theory based on comprehensive literature. Those characteristics are as follows:

  • Learning environment, skills, situations and tasks are realistic, relevant and authentic which represent the real world complexity.
  • Multiple concepts of representation and learning perspective are encouraged and presented.
  • Learner derived the objective and goals with the system (Bhuasiri et al., 2012).

The subject is about e-learning and practices. There are three different learning theory are discussed above. Three theories are but subject is one. Therefore the main discussion stream is same. Fist theory is about behaviorism theory of e-learning. This theory is about the nature of e-learning. An introduction of e-learning can be gathered by studying the behaviorism theory. The second one is about cognitive theory as the main remain same i.e. e-learning. The significance can be assumed through the cognitive nature of e-learning. The cognitive nature can introduce the behaviorism of e-learning, it because the reflection of learning system reflects from both the theories (Lee, et al., 2011).  Cognitive means the knowledge and from knowledge behavior comes out. So another point comes out from analysis the above two theories. The last theory is taken i.e. constructivism theory of e-learning. In this theory the construction process is elaborated. In this theory process of learning is discussed. The relation between behaviorism and Constructivism is clear. Constructivism shows the style of learning and behaviorism is the reflection of style of e-learning. The last relationship is between Constructivism and Cognitive. Cognitive means the knowledge volume and constructivism means built in process. The relation is construction process of cognitive for e-learning system. It is the proof of relation between cognitive and constructivism (Doelitzscher et al., 2011).

Case Study: 1

 From the review of e-learner feed back some advantages have gathered based on internet. An internet e-learner said that e-learning system helps him to save time by not going to the college but he was able to gather the management study knowledge form internet search engine. He also described about the variety of management study material option. Different pdf file h pled him to make management projects (Masud and Huang  2012). In very short time he was able to find any subject related to management and made the project.

Behaviorism theory

Case Study: II

An audio based e-learner given her feed back with negativity. She was accessing audio equipment of CDs or DVDs. She was just listening and discussing about the subject matter only. She can gather no visible information to understand the subject matter. As she was trying to learn some economics based subjects, therefore she needs some graphical presentations but audio learning system cannot able to provide any graphical presentation through the sound equipment. This case study is taken as negative feedback of e-learning (Romero and Barberà 2011).

There are some learning gap in e-learning process can observe from the above study. E-learning process is based on internet or CDs or DVD based. According to Sloman and Van Buren (2003) 62 percent of all learning technology fails to meet the learners’ expectations. Thorough knowledge and depth analysis cannot do form e-learning system. Traditional learning system can provide authentic learning material but e-learning system is reflection about the idea of a mentor. There is a knowledge gap remains in e-learning system. The learning process of traditional learning system is more effective and understandable for any learner as he/she will have education practically and learned well (Sangrà,et., al.,  2012). The thorough study can do only by in traditional learning system. In e learning system motivation is not strong so the learner does not give effort to complete or planning the study. It is inferred from the experience of the review of learner i.e. e-learning is combination of visual, auditory and kinesthetic equipments to learn. A learner cannot devote   time to computer when he is using audio equipment for learning. Therefore, learning experts needs to analyze the learners’ needs and time commitments and design a course that offers various options of learning. 

Conclusion

In the above assignment the matter highlighted about e-learning system (ŠUmak, et al., 2011). Three strong theories are taken to analyze the total e-learning system. The structural concept of e-learning system is there in the constructivism theory. The pattern of learning system is heighted by the theory. The next is about the cognitive theory of e-learning which is about the knowledge volume of the respective learning system. The depth and versatility of this learning system reflects through that theory. Another theory of behaviorism theory is taken to introduce the learning process. The relationships between the theories are discussed to analyze the overall procedure of the learning system (Lin 2011). Some authors’ opinion is taken to prove discussed subject matter which made the assignment more authentic. After discussing the positivity of e-learning some disadvantages are still there to discuss. This is also done the last part of the assignment. Advantages and Disadvantages are highlighted by two case studies in the assignment. It is based on two different e-learners’ feedback. The controversy is between traditional learning and e-learning process. After the controversy it is assumed that traditional learning can give more depth about subject than e-learning. But advantages of e-learning are less time consuming than traditional learning. But in present days e-learning is more popular to the learner due to time saving factor because every learner is very busy in present days (Kumar 2011).

Positive Impact in the Field

References

Clark, R.C. and Mayer, R.E., 2011. E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. John Wiley & Sons.

Garrison, D.R., 2011. E-learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice. Taylor & Francis.

Moore, J.L., Dickson-Deane, C. and Galyen, K., 2011. e-Learning, online learning, and distance learning environments: Are they the same?. The Internet and Higher Education, 14(2), pp.129-135.

Rennie, F. and Morrison, T., 2013. E-learning and social networking handbook: Resources for higher education. Routledge.

Horton, W., 2011. E-learning by design. John Wiley & Sons.

Huang, E.Y., Lin, S.W. and Huang, T.K., 2012. What type of learning style leads to online participation in the mixed-mode e-learning environment? A study of software usage instruction. Computers & Education, 58(1), pp.338-349.

Verbert, K., Duval, E., Klerkx, J., Govaerts, S. and Santos, J.L., 2013. Learning analytics dashboard applications. American Behavioral Scientist, p.0002764213479363.

Arsyad, A., 2011. Media pembelajaran.

Bhuasiri, W., Xaymoungkhoun, O., Zo, H., Rho, J.J. and Ciganek, A.P., 2012. Critical success factors for e-learning in developing countries: A comparative analysis between ICT experts and faculty. Computers & Education, 58(2), pp.843-855.

Lee, Y.H., Hsieh, Y.C. and Hsu, C.N., 2011. Adding Innovation Diffusion Theory to the Technology Acceptance Model: Supporting Employees' Intentions to use E-Learning Systems. Educational Technology & Society,14(4), pp.124-137.

Doelitzscher, F., Sulistio, A., Reich, C., Kuijs, H. and Wolf, D., 2011. Private cloud for collaboration and e-Learning services: from IaaS to SaaS.Computing, 91(1), pp.23-42.

Masud, M.A.H. and Huang, X., 2012. An e-learning system architecture based on cloud computing. system, 10(11).

Romero, M. and Barberà, E., 2011. Quality of e-learners’ time and learning performance beyond quantitative time-on-task. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 12(5), pp.125-137.

Sangrà, A., Vlachopoulos, D. and Cabrera, N., 2012. Building an inclusive definition of e-learning: An approach to the conceptual framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(2), pp.145-159.

ŠUmak, B., HeričKo, M. and PušNik, M., 2011. A meta-analysis of e-learning technology acceptance: The role of user types and e-learning technology types. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), pp.2067-2077.

Lin, K.M., 2011. e-Learning continuance intention: Moderating effects of user e-learning experience. Computers & Education, 56(2), pp.515-526.

Kumar, S., Gankotiya, A.K. and Dutta, K., 2011, April. A comparative study of moodle with other e-learning systems. In Electronics Computer Technology (ICECT), 2011 3rd International Conference on (Vol. 5, pp. 414-418). IEEE.

Korucu, A.T. and Alkan, A., 2011. Differences between m-learning (mobile learning) and e-learning, basic terminology and usage of m-learning in education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, pp.1925-1930.

Mustafa, Y.E.A. and Sharif, S.M., 2011. An approach to adaptive e-learning hypermedia system based on learning styles (AEHS-LS): Implementation and evaluation. International Journal of Library and Information Science, 3(1), pp.15-28.

Cheung, R. and Vogel, D., 2013. Predicting user acceptance of collaborative technologies: An extension of the technology acceptance model for e-learning. Computers & Education, 63, pp.160-175.

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