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S-O-R Theory and Sales Associate Appearance Cues

Question :

Discuss about the Examine S-O-R Theory ?

Salesperson or sales associate is a strong feature that influences consumers’ decision process. This paper examines the concepts and theories related to sales associate and the fashion retailing industry in Singapore. This paper aims to examine S-O-R theory related to store image and emotions of consumers. The purpose of this study is to investigate several aspects of sales associate such as behaviour, appearance and dress that affect purchasing behaviour(Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014). The store image and ability for building loyalty highly depends on the attributes of sales associate. Clothing is a significant part of the sales associate’s appearance as it plays a critical role in translating meanings like mood, identity and attitude. Therefore, this paper identifies the ways in which sales associate’s appearance influences consumer purchase behaviour(Yeung & Ang, 2015).

This literature review is based on previous studies and literature. The S-O-R framework is reviewed after constructing a conceptual framework of salesperson appearance cues in the retail environment. A sales associate or salesperson is an individual who helps the customers in picking items for the customers to purchase(Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014). Purchase intention can be defined as the willingness of an individual to purchase a certain product or service.It was argued that the consumers form a perception of the sales assistant in the early stages of communication or interaction.The sales assistants provide personalized service that impacts the consumers’ perception(Cervellon & Coudriet, 2013).The consumers prefer to buy products from a store where the physical appearance of sales assistants’ is good.The sales success or purchase intention of a customer depends on the different personality types.Several researchers show interest in the retail environments using the S-O-R framework.

A sales associate or salesperson is an individual who helps the customers in picking items for the customers to purchase. In fashion and clothing industry, the sales associate play a crucial role in converting desire of the customers into sales(Choi, Lee, & Hwang, 2014). They behold the responsibility to ensure high level of customer satisfaction by providing excellent customer service(Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014). Further, the sales associate assesses customer needs and provide information about the apparels or other fashionable items as required assistance(Sachdeva & Goel, 2015). The sales associates welcome customers by greeting them and answering their queries. As the customers have queries regarding price, cloth features and specifications while purchasing items, the sales associate must be able to promptly resolve their queries and complaints(Kim & Kim, 2014).

Zarley Watson and Yan (2013) argue that nonverbal communication influences a customer’s behaviour. Nonverbal communication is defined as sending and receiving messages without using words. The psychological studies conducted in the 1960s investigated the effect of clothing on interpersonal behaviour (Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014). Several researchers explored the effects of clothing and appearance on social interaction. It is argued that fashionable clothing has greater impact on consumers than the unfashionable clothing (Malik, 2015). It was further argued that sales assistant wearing attractive clothes had more positive interactions with the clients than the ones wearing outdated clothing (Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014). The personal traits were perceived as the sales assistants wearing casual, conservative, dressy or daring styles (Das, 2014).

Sales Associate's Role in Fashion Retailing

According to a study conducted by Mafini and Dhurup (2014) in South Africa’s clothing industry, it was analysed that staffs are a major influence for the consumer purchasing behaviour. It was argued that the consumers form a perception of the sales assistant in the early stages of communication or interaction(Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014). The author further argues that the right relationship between sales assistant and client must be established in the beginning so that it is easier to understand customers’ expectations in a better way(Petersson McIntyre, 2013). Furthermore, the client satisfaction rate in the clothing industry is evoked by the salesperson as the emotions induced enhance the shopping experience resulting in purchase(Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014). Therefore, the consumers’ emotions needs to be determined by the clothing sales associate as they can help improve the sales approach by eliciting the correct emotions and promoting purchase satisfaction (Leathers, 2015).

                                                                    Figure 2: Influence of Sales Assistant Clothing on Purchase Behaviour

                                                                                           Source: Mafini and Dhurup (2014)

As shown in the above figure, female consumers have interest in fashion. This study by Mafini and Dhurup (2014) focuses and lays emphasis on female consumers only. The next important component of the study is sales assistant or associate. It is argued that the South Africa’s clothing retailers have modified their image much more than what was expected of them. The clothing retailers such as Woolworths, Edgars, Truworths have made efforts to sustain in the market (Lunardo, Bressoles & Durrieu, 2016). The sales assistants provide personalized service that impacts the consumers’ perception. The authors Mafini and Dhurup (2014) argue that the sales’ assistant’s physical appearance affects customers’ perception. The sales assistants are judged on their physical appearance as they have certain impact on consumers’ emotions(Chan, Cheung, & Lee, 2017). The positive impact on emotions might lead to purchasing decision(Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014).

According to a study conducted by Lunardo, Bressoles and Durrieu (2016), the way store employees dress up or appear socially influences purchase intention. The study considers a simple example where appearance is linked with expression of social identity. It was found that formal business wear of employees were perceived by the consumers as conservative and professional (Lunardo, Bressoles & Durrieu, 2016). It is argued that the appearance and clothing not just attract customers, but also influences the store image. The consumers prefer to buy products from a store where the physical appearance of sales assistants’ is good (Sellerberg & Leppanen, 2014).

In the previous studies, it has been assessed that there are academicians and practitioners who aim to develop a long-term relationship between the buyers and sellers of fashion wear in Singapore. One of the key subjects that can be focused in research is relationship quality (Tabasum, Rabbani, & Muhammad Asif, 2015). The scholars have started to investigate multiple factors of success and failure in relationship between buyers and sellers. The sales associates have been recognized for their limited role in building long-term relationship with their customers (Lunardo, Bressoles & Durrieu, 2016). Relationship managers are the salespeople being involved in relationship marketing. Customer-oriented behaviours help in enhancing long-lasting behaviour between buyers and sellers. Therefore, it is necessary to appoint the right sales associate for building long-term relationship for the businesses (Hall, Ahearne, & Sujan, 2015).

Nonverbal Communication and Sales Assistant's Physical Appearance

It is argued that individual personality traits are crucial in influencing buyer-seller relationship(Chan, Cheung, & Lee, 2017). The personality of the sales associate helps in building relationships while making frequent negotiations on quantity, price, delivery, quantity and product specifications (Lunardo, Bressoles & Durrieu, 2016). Therefore, the literature shows a link between personality and purchasing behaviour. The main question arising from this analysis is- which personality traits have a significant impact on buyer seller relationships(Tabasum, Rabbani, & Muhammad Asif, 2015)?

Furthermore, the literature proposes good customer relationships in which the sales associate and customers interact often (Mullins et al., 2014).. The sales associate is encouraged to treat customers at their best. There are multiple approaches for studying personality and the most common method is trait theory (Tabasum, Rabbani, & Muhammad Asif, 2015). According to the trait theory, it is argued that the salespersons’ personalities affect their performance. The sales success or purchase intention of a customer depends on the different personality types. According to Miao and Wang (2016), there are personality classifications that influence customer purchase intention. The Big Five Framework argues that there are differences between individuals that can be categorized into extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness and emotionally stable (Lunardo, Bressoles & Durrieu, 2016). It is argued that the personality traits of these sales associates are crucial in influencing customer purchase decision(Chan, Cheung, & Lee, 2017). Even though the sales associates use same level of work, tools and propensity, not all of them are successful. According to the evidences gathered from literary sources, the personalities of these sales associate help in determining success (Mullins et al., 2014).

Therefore, the above literature indicates that sales associate personality positively impacts customer purchase decision. Personality traits positively impacts customer perception and influences sales.

Several researchers show interest in the retail environments using the S-O-R framework. The framework was developed by Mehrabian and Russell's that is based on the preposition that the situation on behaviour is influenced and mediated by emotional responses(Mazaheri, Laroche, & Ueltschy, 2014). The emotional reactions are identified as connotative, affective and feeling responses that are transformed into behavioural response. The three basic dimensions of emotional responses are recognized as pleasure, dominance and arousal (Miniero, Rurale, & Addis, 2014).

According to Bakker et al., (2014), pleasure is an emotional state of satisfaction, contentment and happiness. It is a positive reinforcement and liking approach where the latter responses are determined by the arousing quality of stimulus. Arousal is defined as a state indicating how wide awake an organism is and the responsiveness to act. It is activity-oriented in nature (Peng & Kim, 2014). Lastly, dominance can be defined as reflection to the extent where a person feels overpowered or in full control by the internal and external environment. If the level of dominance is high, the individual shall be highly submissive. It is argued that the above identified emotions lead to avoidance behaviour where the individuals may be willing to step out of the environment (Mazaheri, Laroche, & Ueltschy, 2014). However, they may also be influenced where the individuals would be willing to interact and explore with the environment. In this study, the S-O-R framework shall explore perceived relationships between appearance of sales associate and client’s emotion. The sales associate’s appearance is considered as stimuli, store image and positive or negative emotions can be considered as organism and purchase is considered as response(Tabasum, Rabbani, & Muhammad Asif, 2015).

Influence of Sales Assistant Clothing on Consumers' Emotions and Perception

                                                                               Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of S-O-R Model

                                                                                           Source: (Kim, Ju, & Johnson, 2009)

A stimulus can be defined as the events or occurrences in the environment of an organism that influence its behaviour. The appearance of sales associates’ is considered as stimulus in the fashion retail environment. According to an experimental design, it was shown that professional appearance is considered as important to service perception. In the study, the undergraduate students were shown of different store environments(Chang et al., 2014). In one case scenario, the sales associates were wearing professional apron and greeted their clients well. However, the other case had casual wear rather than a professional apron. Moreover, they did not greet the customers. Therefore, the students found the first case scenario having better interpersonal service quality than the latter one. Another research was conducted where the undergraduate students were shown pictures of banking environment. The interaction between customer at bank and banker was observed where the bankers were either dressed in casuals or a business suit(Cervellon & Coudriet, 2013). The results suggested that the customers had higher expectations when they saw bankers in business suit. Therefore, the purchase intention was higher in comparison with the bankers wearing casuals(Kim, Ju, & Johnson, 2009).

The organisms refer to the internal structure and processes that have been studied in the retail environments involve positive and negative human emotions. This can be well explained using an example of a child who loves to play video games. He seeks pleasure as the stimulus while he plays it. However, when he does not listen to his mother and making her angry, this response is considered as a feedback(Chan, Cheung, & Lee, 2017). Therefore, the child shall now associate playing video games for long hours as fearful whenever her mother is present and the mental state shall lead to avoidance. Associating this concept with sales associates, it is argued that the appearance of salesperson influences emotions of customers. The customers’ emotions or sentiments are increased based on the salespersons’ appearance. It may be romantic or excited in nature. The studies reveal that a properly dressed salesperson is the most influential in affecting customer’s emotions(Kim, Ju, & Johnson, 2009).

The responses refer to the reaction of the individuals based on the organism. The authors have investigated the effect on salesperson’s appearance on several behavioural responses. However, not much research has been conducted on it. As stated in the earlier discussion, the dress worn by the salesperson influence purchase intention of the customers. The age of consumers influence the sales’ associates clothing type response(Chan, Cheung, & Lee, 2017). Not just sales’ associates clothing, but the customer’s appearance also influences salesman’s behaviour. It was found that when the customers were well dressed looking fashionable and attractive, the salesperson were friendlier. However, the customers who were not dressed well received poor customer service in the retail industry. The consumers prefer to buy products from a store where the physical appearance of sales assistants’ is good (Kim, Ju, & Johnson, 2009).

Conclusion

Purchase intention can be defined as the willingness of an individual to purchase a certain product or service. The purchase intention is a dependent variable that is dependent on internal as well as external factors. However, Choi, Yang, and Yoon (2014) define purchase intention as a measure of the strength of one’s intention to perform a specific behaviour or make the decision to buy a product or service. Actual purchase can be defined as an act of acquiring a product or service. It is argued that the actual purchase involves an entire process where the consumers make decision (Millan & Reynolds, 2014). 

The emotions of consumers resulting from clothing sales assistants shall influence purchasing decision. The retailer shall lose or gain purchase emotions based on the organisms. The perception and susceptibility is influenced by the sales assistant. The behaviour of fashion retailers in Singapore before and after purchase is linked with consumer’s behaviour. For example, female clothing consumers in Kazakhstan expect the input of the sales assistant when they are unsure or are shopping alone, which will influence their purchasing decision (Tantanatewin & Inkarojrit, 2016). The decision-making process of individuals is preceded, determined, and followed by the mental (such as service evaluation) and physical activities (such as talking to salespeople) of which purchasing behaviour consists (Shahin Sharifi, 2014).


Several authors argue that appearance does not impact the business. However, the studies haveshown that salesman have higher impact on the sales and revenue (Blázquez, 2014). The studies have suggested that the buyers judge appearance of salesman. It is argued that physical quantities such as sound health, posing posture, pleasant voice and alluring appearance have a significant impact on consumer emotions. As argued by Kim, Ju, and Johnson (2009), if the salesmen are in sound health, they shall have a good physique. As the salesmen provide quality services to the clients, their posing posture makes a huge difference. The posture refers to the standing position of the salesmen when sit or move about. A good posture gives the customers positive impression and high level of confidence (Blázquez, 2014).   

As opined by Seo and Lee (2015), the salesmen are in direct contact with the customers and they beliee in creating the first impression as it is the last impression. The salesmen having a neat and tidy appearance is more likely to succeed in the career. His cleanliness and grooming guarantees good health. Therefore, the customers are more likely to purchase clothes from the sales associate who have good hygiene. According to Ballantine, Parsons, and Comeskey (2015) , the sales associate who have dirty hands, bad body odour and bad breath are unattractive and customers would not choose to purchase fashionable products from them. The salesmen must not wear too gaudy and expensive cothes. The dress must be selected as per their sales career. Simple and smart dresses shall depict a good taste of clothing. The consumers prefer to buy products from a store where the physical appearance of sales assistants’ is good (Chan, Cheung, & Lee, 2017).

Conclusion

The results of this research state that S-O-R model is consistent with environmental psychology. The above literature provides a taxonomy of appearance aspects that is a foundation for future research on salesperson cues in fashion retail environment in Singapore. The link between appearance of salesperson and their behaviour is shown. From the above findings and results, it is evident that the appearance and clothing of sales associate influence purchase behaviour. The consumer emotions and responses are dependent of the appearance of sales person.

As the customers have queries regarding price, cloth features and specifications while purchasing items, the sales associate must be able to promptly resolve their queries and complaints.It is argued that fashionable clothing has greater impact on consumers than the unfashionable clothing.The author further argues that the right relationship between sales assistant and client must be established in the beginning so that it is easier to understand customers’ expectations in a better way.The sales assistants are judged on their physical appearance as they have certain impact on consumers’ emotions. The consumers prefer to buy products from a store where the physical appearance of sales assistants’ is good.The sales associates have been recognized for their limited role in building long-term relationship with their customers.It is argued that the personality traits of these sales associates are crucial in influencing customer purchase decision.

It is argued that the identified emotions- pleasure, dominance and arousal lead to avoidance behaviour where the individuals may be willing to step out of the environment.In this study, the S-O-R framework shall explore perceived relationships between appearance of sales associate and client’s emotion.The students found the store having professional apron better interpersonal service quality than the one wearing casual. Not just sales’ associates clothing, but the customer’s appearance also influences salesman’s behaviour. Therefore, the customers are more likely to purchase clothes from the sales associate who have good hygiene. It is argued that the store image influences customer loyalty. Store image plays a significant role in fashion retailing.Store atmosphere determines to a large extent how consumers feel and behave in a shop. The emotions of consumers resulting from clothing sales assistants shall influence purchasing decision.

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