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Nature of Education in Colonial British North America

Discuss the history of female education in the British North American colonies. What structural disadvantages did girls face? To what extent have these disadvantages disappeared, and what factors or individuals were responsible for the change?

Colonial education in British North America was majorly restricted to elementary and grammar schools and the pattern of education depended on the class to which the children belonged and was more biased toward the male section of the population (Spring, 2014). Education in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was very varied in nature and primarily consisted of public schooling systems. While the educational systems imparting education through processes of schooling and formal methods was more focused on men, the women were imparted other forms of education which were basically and primarily vocational. One of the most important facts about the imparting of education was that most of the students or the population was not able to afford higher education or secondary school for various reasons. Women were imparted education more along the lines of religious matters and household work. It is also important to note in this regard that in the colonial age the type of education that the children received for the most part was dependent on the social stratification and the class that the family of the child belonged. The form and the subjects of education also varied depending upon the social class. Some of the educational institutions in that era were supported with the help of taxes and others were private. Moreover women and girls were hardly provided with the exposure or opportunity of being educated.

During the colonial period widespread public education was quite slow to develop even in New England where education was considered top priority. In 1947, Massachusetts enacted a law that demanded every town comprising of fifty families to contribute funds through taxes to establish the public schools as most people settled to support for school (Davies & Hammack, 2005). With the increase in population there was a growth in the number of people who were staying in the villages and they were large enough to support the public education. During the 1700s, the public schools became quite common although the quality of these schools remained quite questionable. The colonial period witnessed gendered education and the predictable consequence of the stark gender gap in the education of girls and the boys. It was considered unprofitable to invest for the education of the girl child, as they were deemed as burden to the family who would married off and henceforth, their education did not provide any benefit to the family (Roderick, 2016). Education became the mean for preparing the women to excel in the public life. Women were not considered as rightful members of the public life and it was believed that women were intellectually inferior to their male counterparts and therefore, they were not considered to be educated in the same manner as that of the boys.

Gender Bias in Education Toward Men

The private system of education included the home, the church and the voluntary associations like the library companies, circulating libraries and the philosophical societies, apprenticeships and the private study. Those who were associated with education and the private benefactors primarily supported this system.

Most of the essays and studies on the education of women in the early colonial decades suggest that most of the women who were able to access the opportunities and get exposure to the educational options belonged to the middle or upper middle class of the society. This is the class of women who got extensively educated in the fields of vocational and informal education.  According to a few other studies, women were greatly involved in the processes of cultural integrity and education and hence in a very indirect manner affected the economic and social reforms and policies in place at the time (Aikenhead & Elliott, 2010).

As a matter of fact, according to, (2018), the upper class in the colonial era of the British North America who were educated primarily received extensive and rigorous reading lessons, writing lessons, mathematics and poems and prayers. The pattern of education received by the boys however differed from the type of education and training that girls received. Girls were primarily required to be educated on the subjects of maintaining household expenditure, read the Bible, arithmetic, writing and reading. Further, girls were required to be adept at etiquettes, art, music, French, needle work, spinning, cooking as well as nursing unlike the boys who were educated in matters of celestial navigation, geography, history and management. Unlike the boys who were taught by male teachers, governesses who mostly belonged to England and were educated in the same subjects up to different extents taught the girls (Davies & Hammack, 2005).

The concept of single education is not that novel and was widely popular during the colonial period. During the close of the 19th c. most of the boys were enrolled in the dame school which was defined as a school that was influenced by the English model of home instruction comprising of small groups of children who were led by the women in their home (Davies & Hammack, 2005). The schools that were located in New England prepared the boys for town hall school. Although women were also enrolled in the dame schools but only a small section of them attended the town hall schools for the purpose of academics. Single gender schools were private and exclusive to the wealthy families. This underlines that these schools have both class and gendered connotations.

Development of Public Education

The establishment of the dame schools can be traced back to the kitchens and the community of the older women adults. This is an important period during which women trained themselves to become teachers. When girls were finally decided to be accommodated into the town schools, they attended the schools at different times of the day than the boys or during the time period when boys did not attend the schools like during the summer holidays or during the vacations.

The education system of Massachusetts had its roots in the Protestant Reformation that was driven by the belief that education was mandatory for all the individuals in order to understand the contents of the scriptures. The Massachusetts colonists established the Mayflower within the 10 to 20 years of their arrival (Davies & Hammack, 2005). The Massachusetts colonists are credited for building the town schools, the Latin grammar school and the Harvard College. The blooming and proliferating economy in the colonies led to an additional need for literacy. It is reported that the colonial women were intimately involved in the commerce and family business. These colonies became the fulcrum for the equal opportunities rendered to men and women in the process of education.

The establishment and the proliferation of the co-education schools were aligned with the single-gender schools that were pioneered by the academy movement or the single-gender seminary. This was pioneered by the prominent figures of Emma Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon who established schools drawing from the model of the previously mentioned institutions. Apart from these women, the Catholic Church was at the center stage in determining and informing the discourse of the growing academy movement. Church based education was necessary given the boom in population during the onset of 1860 (Spring, 2016). Seminaries were attended by women to prepare them for being teachers who can perform at the ground level to cater to the growing demand for the educators in the Catholic Girls Schools. These seminaries became quite popular as it concentrated on the training of the teachers in an innovative manner through the promotion of dynamic teaching strategies and the cooperation of students. The academy movement was revolutionary as it led to the establishment or the foundation of the first women’s college in the United States that includes the Georgia Female College, Mount Holyoke Seminary and the Elmira Female College. In the western territories during the early and the mid-1800’s coeducation was nominal and there were more option available for single-gender educational institutions (Spring, 2008). This was not the situation in the eastern states that established the bastions of higher remained considerable financially autonomous. During this time, the counterparts of the male colleges emerged like the affiliates and they had affiliations from universities like the Harvard, Brown and Columbia that provided opportunities for women to participate in limited fashion. The educational opportunities provided to the men could not be afforded in these prestigious institutions (Roderick, 2016). Within the college premises, women were closely supervised and monitored and they were segregated from the men. By the end of the nineteenth centuries, state universities enabled women to apply for degree programs; however this remained a feature of the state universities as the private universities did not adhere to this pattern. Consequently Mount Holyoke, Wellesly, Smith, Radcliffe, Vassar, Bryan Mawr and Barnard established single-gender university environments that are designed to cater to the specific educational needs of the women. Although, single-gender colleges aimed for women were growing during the 20th century most of the colleges and the public secondary schools have become co-educational. Despite the institutionalization and growing popularity of coeducational system, it did not insure equal opportunity in the education of men and women. During the 1918, the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education made a case for creation of the two-track system in education that provided vocational training to the girls which became quite popular at that time (Spring, 2016). Gender discrimination informed by patriarchal worldview was illustrated in the incident that even girls who were meritorious and had higher academic records were expected to train themselves domestic education, as these were deemed compatible for their future. Although, there was an expansion of the role of women in the society through the mid-1960s, women were encouraged to veer to occupations that were suitable of their personality. Therefore, women had limited choices in their careers that in turn restricted their career mobility. Women were largely concentrated in the occupations of teaching, nursing, motherhood and secretarial role that were deemed in consonance with her femininity.

Emergence of Single-Gender and Coeducation Schools

Amid the French administration in Canada, the way toward learning was coordinated into regular daily existence. While the French government bolstered the duty of the Catholic Church for showing religion, arithmetic, history, characteristic science, and French, the family was the essential unit of social association and the fundamental setting inside which all learning occurred (White & Peters, 2009). In the work concentrated economy of the seventeenth and eighteenth hundreds of years, families depended on the financial commitments of their youngsters, who were effectively occupied with gainful movement. Youngsters learned abilities, for example, planting, turning and land clearing from other relatives (Roderick, 2016). Youthful guys were prepared for different exchanges through an apprenticeship system. Similarly, in light of the fact that the populace was little and scattered, it was typically the family that gave religious guideline and, now and again, direction in perusing and composing. In specific territories, area clerics set up petites écoles in which they showed instruction and different subjects. In the mid seventeenth century, around one-fourth of the pilgrims were proficient, yet by the turn of the eighteenth century, the distraction of survival had incurred significant injury on the proficiency rate and just a single individual in seven could sign his or her name (Roderick, 2016). The Jesuits, Récollets, Ursulines, the Congregation of Notre Dame, and different religious requests gave rudimentary direction in instruction, perusing, composing, and number juggling. Further developed direction was accessible for young fellows who may progress toward becoming clerics. By the mid-seventeenth century, a course in traditional examinations, language and religious philosophy was accessible at the Collège des Jésuites, established in 1635. In the 1660s Bishop Laval established the Séminaire de Québec, which later progressed toward becoming Université Laval (Genesee, 1998).

Formal direction for females was very constrained and for the most part did not stretch out past religious guideline and aptitudes, for example, embroidery. In any case, young ladies who lived in the field may have been exceptional taught than young men because of the endeavors of the sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame, who built up schools in country zones and in addition in towns, and went as nomad teachers. During the eighteenth and mid nineteenth hundreds of years, the family remained the unrivaled setting for training; couple of kids in what was then British North America got formal guideline either from coaches or in schools. The example started to change amid this period, as the British government looked to instruction as a method for advancing social recognizable proof with Protestantism, the English dialect, and British traditions (Roderick, 2016).

Establishment of Mayflower and Harvard College

In the years after the Conquest of 1759-60, the British experts were exceedingly worried about the solid French Canadian nearness in the settlement, and they attempted more than once to aid the foundation of schools that were outside the control of religious specialists. These endeavors were undermined by the Catholic Church and, all the more essentially, by the lack of engagement of nearby networks, in which training was connected more with families than classrooms.

Be that as it may, the idea of tutoring turned out to be more across the board among social pioneers during the mid-nineteenth century. In these years, lawmakers, churchmen and instructors bantered about inquiries of instructive financing, control and interest, and by the 1840s the structure of the cutting edge educational systems can plainly be recognized in a rising authority accord (Genesee, 1998).

There were various disadvantages faced by women especially in the field of obtaining and attaining education in this era (Roderick, 2016). However, the major factors of disadvantages faced by women included both financial and sexual shortcomings and limitations. Thus, the basic point of differentiation in between men and women comprised of lesser productivity and capabilities due to lesser strength and the existence of a lot of other household responsibilities and accountabilities. Due to the heterogeneity in the roles and power of men and women the structural disadvantages crept up and remained consistent for a long period of time in this era.  Marriages for example had become a form of contract for women and it was very difficult for them to come out of the same (Roderick, 2016). Even though a number of women rights groups took up initiatives to fight for justice and equal opportunities for women, the persistence and depth of structural disadvantages faced by women remained the same and constant. Apart from the factors of gender inequality and social stratification faced by women in the field of receiving education, the color of their skin also formed another major factor in obstructing and forming a barrier to the education received (Reyhner& Eder, 2017). This in turn created conditions of stress and mental illness including stances of depression and anxiety which had adverse effects on the quality and amount of education women were able to receive after overcoming the shortcomings and limitations of family and gender (Khorsandi Taskoh, 2014).

Restricted open doors for tutoring were accessible to young ladies. Despite the fact that Protestant conviction recognized a similar course to salvation for people, and in this manner a similar requirement for proficiency, female training in the mid nineteenth century went from mediocre compared to nonexistent. As the push for school change expanded in the middle of the 1840s, nonetheless, prevalent mentalities started to move concerning the instruction of young ladies (Reyhner& Eder, 2017). Despite the fact that ladies' knowledge was viewed as various and maybe second rate compared to men's, females were trusted able and meriting basic school instruction with a specific end goal to end up upstanding good natives and more critical in light of the fact that as future spouses and moms they expected to pass such strong good preparing on to their families. Benjamin Rush, DeWitt Clinton, Emma Hart Willard, and others took up the contention that female instruction was important for this vital residential part. In spite of the fact that imbalance of chance remained an issue, the expanding acknowledgment and arrangement of training for young ladies brought about a sensational ascent of female enlistments in schools all things considered. As an ever increasing number of young ladies went through the instructive framework, an indication of their headway could be found in the expanding level of educated ladies, which multiplied in the vicinity of 1780 and 1840 (Khorsandi Taskoh, 2014).

Academy Movement and Women's Colleges

In the Colonial Era, the educational opportunities and system was well constructed and monitored in the region of New England. In fact, majority of the concentration of educational opportunities was in New England and hardly existed in the other regions and areas. Only a very small proportion of women and girls had access to educational exposure and opportunities and mostly received schooling and education at home under the concept of “Dave Schools”. Most of the states did not have options of taxed schooling like Massachusetts and Northampton as the privileged and affluent families were too reluctant in paying for education of the poor. Moreover, even though the concept of taxation and taxed education for the poor was introduced in North Hampton later on, these funds generated were primarily used for education of boys and their higher education (Khorsandi Taskoh, 2014). Only in Sutton majority of taxes were collected and used for purposes of schooling and education of girls and the education of boys and girls was given equal importance. Reading and writing were considered as separate elements of education and writing was considered more important. Boys were primarily imparted education in terms of both writing and reading whereas girls were primarily taught to read, the subjects were mainly related to household activities and vocational subjects that would require care, and lesser mental strength as compared to subjects taught to boys. Across the southern region education rates were essentially low and most children were home schooled (especially girls) and a few others were sent to very small schools which functioned primarily in the private sector (Reyhner& Eder, 2017).  

Education in the colonial North America began with the mother’s knee and it ended in the cornfield or the barn by the side of the father. The task of teaching and reading to the children was considered as the duty of the mother as there was a shortage in the supply of papers she had to trace the alphabets in the dust and the ashes of the fireplace. Colonial mothers played an important role in imparting education to the children through simple, time-tested methods of instruction that are mixed to the old-fashioned hard work.

Apart from the gender-based education in British North America colonies, slavery was present as well making it difficult for the black women to earn degree. However, there was a change in the situation following the emancipation in the 1860s (Khorsandi Taskoh, 2014). There was a burgeoning in the Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) that led to the generation of a large number of Black college graduates. Discrimination for Black women was evident as it was reported that no faculty positions were available for the Black women during the 1850s (Selman & Dampier, 1991). Only few Black women could attend the schools and colleges during the 1900 and teaching was the main profession, however employment option was limited for these women in the secondary and the primary schools (Reyhner& Eder, 2017). The Black women who had the college degree but were not interested in teaching in the secondary and the elementary schools, the position of the dean enabled them in advancing their skills. It was by the 1920s, that BA was mandatory in securing the position so that the deans could model the learning and embolden students to pursue higher education. For the Black women promotion and pay scale was quite limited therefore underscoring on the discrimination faced by these women (Khorsandi Taskoh, 2014). They were usually relegated to the lower ranks and were involved in the invisible work that went largely unrecognized. These activities include counseling, coordinating the meetings, organization of civil rights campaigns, and in stretching the meager resources that was aimed in the improvement of the resources of the college and the campus communities. Although, there was a substantial increase in the number of women in these teaching positions, it cannot be overlooked that a large section of women were seeping out of these positions owing to filial responsibilities. Women were often provided mediocre positions and felt isolated in the academia due to the lack of the female mentors. If omen made any mistake those were amplified as compared to the mistakes made by the male colleagues. Women had to pay the social tax of sacrificing their career by being entangled in the maternal and conjugal duties that proved to be a major setback in the mobility of her career.

The foundation of educational systems crosswise over Canada amid the nineteenth century took after a strikingly comparative frame and sequence because of the complex and frequently contending aspirations of both authority instructors and guardians. Inside this likeness, in any case, were some remarkable contrasts identified with essential social and political refinements (Selman & Dampier, 1991).

The general similitude among educational systems in Canada rose up out of the aspirations of instructive pioneers (suitably portrayed by antiquarians as "school promoters") all through the mid-nineteenth century, and the eagerness of numerous guardians (however surely not all) to send their youngsters to class at whatever point material conditions made it conceivable (Selman & Dampier, 1991).

The way that driving teachers were so steady in their desire isn't astounding since they read each other's works, as well as were regularly in contact with each other. The main figure in Ontario, Egerton Ryerson, worked in a joint effort with Jean-Baptiste Meilleur in Québec, and in addition John Jessop in British Columbia. Thusly, these school promoters worked in a universal setting. For instance, Egerton Ryerson went to in excess of 20 nations amid 1844 and 1845 when he was building up his recommendations for a state funded educational system (Khorsandi Taskoh, 2014).

Driving teachers, or school promoters, contended that mass tutoring could impart fitting methods of thought and conduct into youngsters. In their brains, the reason for mass tutoring did not principally include the obtaining of scholarly information. Educational systems were intended to take care of a wide assortment of issues extending from wrongdoing to neediness, and from inertness to vagrancy. Teachers related these potential and genuine issues to 3 fundamental driver: the effect of consistent and generous migration; the change from horticultural to modern private enterprise; and the procedure of state arrangement in which subjects came to practice political power. While every one of the 3 of these causes assumed key parts in the psyches of school promoters crosswise over Canada, the relative significance that every teacher ascribed to them relied upon the territorial and social setting in which the school promoter functioned. In mid-nineteenth century Ontario, the overwhelmingly rustic populace (with just littler business urban communities) implied that feelings of dread about the effect of monstrous monetary change depended on advancements somewhere else as opposed to quick understanding. Be that as it may, gigantic movement and the significance of state development were exceptionally unmistakable at the neighborhood level.

Amid the Rebellions of 1837, rustic and town pioneers in an assortment of networks in focal British North America waged war in quest for political change. To numerous network pioneers, the different uprisings bolstered the contention that educational systems were expected to frame the rising age of natives.

School promoters in Ontario regularly restricted the work of educators or course books from the United States. Rather, they imported certain segments of Irish schools; most quite, the Irish peruses which had been composed to suit a Protestant and Catholic populace. This procedure likewise appeared well and good in that Irish foreigners framed the lion's share in mid-nineteenth century Ontario (Winton, 2010).

In Québec, the Rebellions were much more vital than they were in Ontario, and political concerns lingered particularly expansive in the brains of instructive pioneers. Given the influential position of the Catholic Church, be that as it may, the development of an instructive state lingered behind while common and religious pioneers wrangled about the division of intensity and obligation. Québec set up its first Ministry of Public Instruction in 1868, however canceled it in 1875 under strain from the Catholic Church, which esteemed it was distant from everyone else equipped for administering training. From that point, Québec was the main region without a Minister of Education (Fullan & Rincon-Gallardo, 2016).

Positively, outsiders were extremely noticeable up and down the St Lawrence River stretching out from the port of Québec City, however numerous were going through the region on their approach to more western parts of the mainland. Essentially, Québec's economy was experiencing noteworthy change, yet just in Montréal could teachers contend reasonably that schools were expected to balance the negative outcomes of procedures, for example, industrialization (Winton, 2010).

The disadvantages and obviations faced by the women in the colonial times of British America have consistently reduced on a progressive basis and have now completely disappeared and been removed. The percentage of women having bachelor’s as well as doctorate degrees have increased. Statistics claim that the percentage of bachelor’s degrees from 1930 to 1980 increased by a little more than 20%. The increase in the percentage of PhD degrees obtained on the whole also increased by a percentage of around 20%. There were a lot of initiatives and factors that led to the increase in the amounts of education and literacy among women which are discussed in detail in the subsequent parts of the essay. Further, the form of subjects in which girls were educated and the ways by which they were imparted education also changed. Girls were educated and empowered more than before and the heterogeneity of responsibility reduced substantially.  From being a very controversial topic, education became a very crucial and important component of development as well as empowerment for women and the country as a whole.

It was the American Revolution that the public image regarding the education of the girls began to change. Benjamin Rush who was of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence has been credited for actively promoted the education of women. He was of the opinion that as a Republic as America had disintegrated from the monarchy of England in the establishment of the representative government they demanded information and the knowledgeable citizens had to survive. Although this argument did not hold the ground at an immediate level, it began to alter the people’s way of thinking during the mid-1800s as it was found that women in large numbers were educated and they were even enrolled in colleges (Neeganagwedgin, 2013).

Women have progressed widely to the extent preparing and mentoring over the span of ongoing decades. Just 20 years back, a smaller level of women than men developed 25 to 54 had a postsecondary preparing. Today, the situation is absolutely novel. Preparing markers exhibit that women generally enhance the circumstance than men. This opening for women is even recognizable at an energetic age, since young women habitually hint at change marks than young fellows in fundamental and discretionary school (Home, 2013). Additionally, a bigger number of young women than young fellows procure their auxiliary school acknowledgment inside the typical time traverse. A bigger number of women than men select in school and school programs ensuing to completing their auxiliary school preparing. A more vital level of women leave these activities with an acknowledgment or degree.

There were many factors that led to the gradual but humongous change in the view point of people and system of education of women in British North America colonies.  The government had a huge role to play and contributed significantly in the economic sphere to promote and support education of women (Abramovitz, 2017). Further, due to greater amounts and intensity of equality between men and women propelled by development and change in roles of men and women, the education imparted to men and women and patterns of lessons taught started to be equivalent as compared to the nature and pattern of lessons taught before. Further, women themselves became more independent and dealt with their careers with more accountability and in a serious manner. Gradually higher education of women also became common causing an increase in the number of colleges for women who in turn propelled movements and initiatives to increase the amount of education as well as the scope of subjects covered through classes and training. As the number of opportunities and success stories of educated women increased, a larger proportion of girl children were enrolled at schools, colleges and different levels of education. There are also cases where women themselves utilized their prior education to work and finance their own higher levels of education (Bruno-Jofré, 2014).

In the year 1962, the passage of the Title IX was responsible for the elimination of the discrimination of women. It became illegitimate to discriminate in the purview of the public schools on the grounds of sex in the schools, career counseling, admission practices, financial aid and the treatment of the students. Violators of this law would amount to losing the federal funds that was granted for the school. Another momentous situation arrived with the passage of the Women’s Educational Equity Act (WEEA) in the year 1974 through the support it created for providing the schools to assist in the recruitment and admission of girls in the courses of science, math and the athletic programs (Freedman, 2007).


To conclude, it can be asserted that even though the difference on the forms and methods and also the intensity of education for men or boys and women or girls were wide in the colonial era, this difference has substantially reduced now and this change has been brought about by the initiatives and policies implemented by the government and the women themselves. Further, the various structural obstructions has also been reduced substantially due to increase in homogeneity of gender roles and responsibilities. Through interviewing the historical picture of the women’s educational experiences it can be seen that the expectations for the girls in the schools may be different for the boys owing to their social location. Historically women have been socialized to take on roles that have limited scope for their growth and are informed by the discourse of biological determinism. Consequently, women are imagined, mapped and concentrated in the roles of secretary, maternal roles, teaching and nursing as all these roles demand the inculcation of the so-called feminine traits of women. The legitimization of the equal access to legislation steered towards the increased access of girls in the different realms of education. It is important to reflect on the struggles, trials and tribulations of women in North American colonies and delineate their journey. The accomplishments made in the past would bolster the women in education in the present context to draw lessons and strengthen their grounds.


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Freedman, E. (2007). No turning back: The history of feminism and the future of women. Ballantine Books.

Kerber, L. K. (1988). Separate spheres, female worlds, woman's place: The rhetoric of women's history. The journal of American history, 75(1), 9-39.

Reyhner, J., & Eder, J. (2017). American Indian education: A history. University of Oklahoma Press.

Roderick, G. (2016). Victorian education and the ideal of womanhood. Routledge.

Solomon, B. M. (2005). In the company of educated women: A history of women and higher education in America. Yale University Press. (2018). Colonial Education | Stratford Hall. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 Jun. 2018].

Selman, G. R., & Dampier, P. (1991). The foundations of adult education in Canada. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.

Bruno-Jofré, R. (2014). History of education in Canada: Historiographic “turns” and widening horizons. Paedagogica Historica, 50(6), 774-785.

Neeganagwedgin, E. (2013). A critical review of Aboriginal education in Canada: Eurocentric dominance impact and everyday denial. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(1), 15-31.

Fullan, M., & Rincon-Gallardo, S. (2016). Developing high-quality public education in Canada. How privatization and public investment influence educational outcomes, 169-193.

Aikenhead, G. S., & Elliott, D. (2010). An emerging decolonizing science education in Canada. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 10(4), 321-338.

Spring, J. (2014). Globalization of education: An introduction. Routledge.

Home, R. (2013). Of planting and planning: The making of British colonial cities. Routledge.

Winton, S. (2010). Character development and critical democratic education in Ontario, Canada. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 9(2), 220-237.

Khorsandi Taskoh, A. (2014). A critical policy analysis of internationalization in postsecondary education: An Ontario case study.

Davies, S., & Hammack, F. M. (2005). The channeling of student competition in higher education: Comparing Canada and the US. The Journal of Higher Education, 76(1), 89-106.

White, J. P., & Peters, J. (2009). A short history of Aboriginal education in Canada.

Genesee, F. (1998). A case study of multilingual education in Canada. Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education, 243-258.

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