For developing any kind of research, it is important for the researcher to have an effective hypothetical basis. The hypothetical basis helps in formulating relevant research stages. This will help in receiving more valuable information and getting insight understanding of the proposed hypothesis (Clements and Sarama, 2012). In order to structure hypothetical research design the topic that has been undertaken is how successful are afterschool teachers to engage with students having emotional behavioural disorders and suffering with autism. Therefore, the major approaches that will be useful for the particular study are qualitative method and quantitative method. Moreover, the current paper will be focusing on evaluating the two hypothetical research designs. Both the qualitative and quantitative method will provide effective analysis basis which will help in collecting information and presenting it in a best form.
2. Hypothetical Design for Quantitative Research
According to DeVries and Zan (2012), quantitative research design is considered as the standard experimental techniques of largely scientific disciplines. The experiments sometime treated as true science and employs traditional statistical and mathematical sets in order to measure outcomes conclusively. Therefore, the quantitative experiments takes account all standard formats with a less minor interdisciplinary gap for developing a hypothesis that need to be disproved or proved (Funnell et al., 2012). Thus, the hypothetical design for the quantitative method has been stated under:
Hypothesis Statement: Afterschool staffs and teachers do not hold the knowledge and skills on how to engage with the students having emotional or behavioural disorders and autism.
2.1 Research Design Plan
In order to study the above hypothesis, different variables will be taken in account during the research. Therefore, the critical variable for this particular research will be ability of after school staffs and teachers as a dependent variable. The major grounds that have impact on the ability of afterschool staffs and teachers to engage with students serve as a crucial variable for the research (Goodson, Loveless and Stephens, 2012). On the other hand, the factors that can have impact on the ineffectiveness of the afterschool staffs and teachers will be treated as independent variables as they may not be affected by other perspectives. Apart from that, on the basis of hypothesis statement, afterschool staffs and teachers will be segmented into two sections. The first section will be the cluster of afterschool educators having useful skills and knowledge of associating with students with disorders and autism.
The next section will be comprised of afterschool staffs and teachers having ineffective knowledge and skills of associating with students having disorders and autism problems. The mechanism has been depicted with squat performance echelon of students with specific needs. Therefore, the researcher, on the basis of two sections of afterschool staff and teachers, can be able to make comparison of effectiveness between them. Thus, it can be valuable to supply the needs of the students suffering with autism or behavioural and emotional disorders. Moreover, it can be effective for the researcher to assess the hypothesis and receive result during the quantitative survey process (Grand and Jonas, 2012).
Apart from that, the hypothetical design will be helpful for the researcher to spot the steps undertaken by superior performing afterschool programs as a standard for ensuring that the staffs and teachers possesses required knowledge and skills of engaging or associating with the students with disorders and autism. Therefore, the particular study will be lead to understand the best practices adopted in the afterschool programs for providing required support or needs to the students suffering from autism or emotional disorders (Iisgcp.org, 2015).
3. Hypothetical Design for Qualitative Research
As per Popping (2012), the qualitative research design is regarded as the research techniques that are extensively employed by the researchers or scientists in order to study the habits and behaviour of the humans. Moreover, it is treated as pioneer to quantitative research. Therefore, it is applied to develop probable ideas or leads that can be used for devising a testable and realistic hypothesis (Seivewright, 2012). Thus, a hypothetical design in case of quantitative research has been outlined below:
Hypothesis Statement: Afterschool programs’ quality is decided by the knowledge and skills possessed by the educators at programs to associate with students of autism and disorders.
3.1 Research Design
The qualitative research is most flexible which encompasses different range of accepted techniques and structures. Therefore, in order to study the hypothesis, the researcher can focus upon various case studies or formulate survey designs or conduct interviews in order to gain better results (Supino and Borer, 2012). As this section is an exploratory nature then the qualitative approach is effective in getting information about the after school programs’ quality for handling autism and disorder students. Apart from that, an open end question as interview can be conducted with the afterschool educators by the researcher in order to understand their skills and knowledge in handling the students suffering from behavioural and emotional disorders or autism. The qualitative research does not follow standardized structure therefore; open end question will be effective for the researcher to acquire valuable information (6 and Bellamy, 2012).
3.2. Research Analysis Plan
Speer (2012) opined that qualitative method does not take in account statistical analysis whereas in case of quantitative method it is opposite. Thus, open end questionnaire can be effective for the survey to accumulate needful data. Moreover, the open end questionnaire can be valuable in delivering a vital basis for obtaining information. On the other hand, quantitative researcher possesses a benefit of specificity which is not the same case in context to qualitative study (Armitage, 2012). Therefore, in order to study the hypothesis, it may be necessary for the researcher to develop the components that may lead to high excellence afterschool program. Moreover, the proposed statements are based on the program effectiveness for providing for the requirements of students with disorders and autism. Thus, the perception of the teachers and educators towards the afterschool program will be assessed. Apart from that, the researcher can be able to formulate a strategic framework in relation to after school programs on the basis of perceptions. On the other side, it can be understood that, hypothetical design for the qualitative research can provide a good platform for designing a framework of superior quality afterschool program (DeVries and Zan, 2012). Furthermore, the hypothetical design can be helpful for the researcher in understanding the factors that may have influence on the eminence of afterschool programs. The research can be also effective in addressing the certain concerns that may have been skipped in the quantitative design. Therefore, qualitative method can be useful in knowing the approach of educators towards students.
4. Strengths and Weakness of Research Methodology
Qualitative Research Method
The strengths of the qualitative approach are effective in raising more issues via open ended and broad inquiry. This helps in studying the hypothesis in more acceptable and resultant way. On the other hand, it focuses more on deep understanding relating to behaviours of beliefs, assumptions and values. Moreover, the researcher can carry cross case comparisons and do analysis. The narrow number of cases can be studied in depth under qualitative research. Further, the research direction or framework can be easily revised as latest information appears (Macrothink.org, 2015).
The weakness of qualitative method is that it can be time consuming at the time of interviewing process or in process of intensive category. Moreover, for conducting qualitative research high skill is required for conducting interviews.
Quantitative Research Method
The major strengths of quantitative research are that the data can be presented in numbers and thus the researcher can conduct statistical test in formulating statements about the data. The study comprises descriptive statistics such as mean, median and standard deviation. Apart from that, inferential statistics is also taken in account such as ANOVA, t-test or multiple regression correlations. If the sample size is large then the quantitative research can provide more effective result (Southalabama.edu, 2015).
The weakness of quantitative research is that a preconceived hypothesis or theories is considered for determining the type of data to be acquired. On the other hand, there is deficit of resources for conducting large scale research and also there is no any depth experience explanation. Moreover, if the sample size is too small then it can be difficult for researcher or may fail to attain statistical significance (Morgan, 2013).
From the whole study it can be concluded that different hypothetical design can be formulated for conducting quantitative and qualitative research on the particular assumed topic. The hypothetical design is effective in comparing the set hypothesis and generating a possible result to know whether the proposed hypothesis proves the statement or not. The quantitative method is useful as it comprises statistical analysis which is valuable in studying the data in most useful way. Therefore, critical analysis can be conducted to know the reliability and validity of the hypothesis statement. On the other hand, the qualitative method is effective in explaining the issues in more broad way. Thus, quantitative and qualitative researches are two opposite poles that try to solve the hypothesis in their own perspective. Apart from that, the study has mentioned strengths and weakness of both the research methods for knowing their effectiveness.
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