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Dynamic Balance- As the individual gets better with static poses, movement can be added such as swinging arms or free leg. The individual can transition from balancing on one leg into a forward lunge with the front foot on a balance disc. Further, the individual can step up onto the balance disc and stand on it with both feet (Killip, 2016).
ACL is the abbreviated form of Anterior Cruciate Ligament, which is a common graft present in the knee. It is a tendon present on the knee cap which helps in the free movement of the knee joints. Due to the injuries pertaining to the ligament especially in the athletes, there occurs instability in movement of knee in the patients leading to pain and restriction in the walking ability of the individuals.
Rehab is a program used for recovering from injuries, addictions and other mental or physical illness. The rehab program as applied to the post ACL surgery of individuals involves the processes that aim at restoring the functional ability of the affected joint or limb.
The rehab program for the knee patients post the ACL surgery includes the following emphasis:
An integrated pneumatic pump, cryo/ cuff are to be placed on the knee of the patients for providing relief from swelling and pain. The CPM machine should be attached with the patient’s leg and is required to be remaining on until one week post surgery.
An initiation of continuous passive movement is implemented following the discharge from the recovery room. The flexion range is facilitated with the heel slides and wall slides. The leg control exercises are also required to be initiated from the first day post surgery. This main objective of the phase is to regain the full extension of the range of motion within 7 to 14 days of the surgery.
The functional strengthening program including squats, leg raises and step downs is started in order to regain the agility of the knee movement to normal. This phase is intuited once the patient is capable of performing a unilateral knee bend without facing any difficulty.
30 sec x 2 reps
Calf, inner thigh, hamstring
Single toe raises
Single leg hops over cone
Table 1: Rehab program for post ACL surgery patients
Source: Created by author
This is an advanced phase of the rehab session which helps the patients to get back to normal life activities. The phase is generally initiated after 4 weeks post surgery. The clinical goal of this phase is to include a full range of motion activities including the leg presses, full squat of more than 90 degrees, unilateral calf raises, step downs and lunges (Vuorenmaa et al., 2014). The progression of this phase is tested through the isometric and isokinetic strength testing.
After 9 months of the ACL surgery, the patients start to get back to their normal life activities. Still, for full proprioception of the normal knee movements, the patients are required to perform intense walking exercises trill 15 months post the operation (Han et al., 2015).
2.1 Concepts and Terms
Gait is referred to as the manner in which an individual walks including the striding, speed and lilt. It is typically associated with physical diseases including deformity and obesity. Joint pain, restriction of motion and joint deformity are the factors associated with abnormal gait.
Walking in water and cycling both would be good exercises as these are least impact exercises which could help in supporting the strengthening and contraction of the joints. The training program needs to be comprised of an alternate session of pool and cycling exercise such that to reduce down on the impact on the joints of the obese person.
5 day program
Walking in pool
Increased tension and spin
At shallow end
5 min x 1 rep
5 min x 1rep
At deep end
15 min x 1rep
Table 2: 5-day program for the patient with joint pain and gait
Source: (Created by author)
The exercises such as running and walking should not be included in the above training program as these causes more strain and weight on the knees and joints of the obese patient.
3.1 Concepts and Terms
The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons connecting the scapula (shoulder blade) with the upper arm (humerus). The rotator cuff tendons help in providing stability to the shoulder, the muscles which allows the shoulders to rotate.
The throwing athlete had a rotator cuff surgery such that he is requiring to undergo a basic strengthening program, which should be stretching over 3 months. The athlete then, needs to get back to the PT sessions. Thus, the training program should be incorporating the exercises which should be helping in the gradual strengthening of the shoulder muscles.
Exercise plan for the athlete with rotator cuff surgery
Hand and wrist
Lying wand exercise
Rope pulley exercise
Twice daily without moving shoulder
10 min x 1 rep
Start with tennis ball
Table 2: Exercise plan for the athlete with rotator cuff surgery
Rotator Cuff rehab program example 1:
Modalities with ice
Table 3: Rotator Cuff rehab program
Source: (Lowe, 2016)
Table 4: Rotator Cuff rehab program
Source: (taosortho.com, 2016)
The Exercise plan for the athlete with rotator cuff surgery should be incorporating the exercises as evident from the examples evident from two literatures. This inclusion of the exercises would be helping the athlete to increase the strength in his shoulder muscles on a gradual basis.
4.1 Concepts and terms
Outcome management can be defined as the set of activities related to the realizing, planning and managing the desired outcomes from the initiatives (Mos et al., 2014). It represents the simultaneous focus on quality, costs, accountability and assessment.
In terms of rehab or medical fitness program, the outcome management can be regarded as the managing care system for identifying and assessing the interventions or non interventions for leading to the desired medical outcome.
In rehab and fitness care system, the Outcome management can be applied to provide continuous quality improvement for assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of the services and products and the quality with which they are being provided (Wakabayashi & Sakuma, 2014). The outcome management helps in linking the process and structure of the fitness program to the outcome of the program. A successful outcome management helps in making the fitness program to have a better value by reducing the costs through the development of effective treatment guidelines.
As for example, in the health care system, the sources of information related to the outcome management include the medical records, databases, and patient surveys. The outcome management helps in overcoming the barriers in getting the desired outcome before realizing the full potential of the outcome.
A hypertensive 50 year old male with a resting pressure of 145/92 can perform three types of exercises. A 5-10 minute warm up is necessary that would help in improving flexibility and preventing injury. The person must perform cardiovascular or aerobic exercises such as jogging, bicycling, skating, rowing, and swimming daily for 30 minutes. It would help in lowering blood pressure. The focus shall also be laid on weight training that would help in burning more fats and calories and building muscles. Other than that, the person must also reduce salt consumption (Knopf, 2016).
In the past, one of the contra-indicated exercises performed by me is frog jumps. I started this exercise to burn off extra calories and shed extra pounds. The frog jumps must go as far as possible and not as high as possible. The exercise is suitable for facilitating body toning and defining muscles. Other benefits were to strengthen my calves, quads, leg muscles and glutes. The exercise is perfectly suited for toning muscles. I began this exercise as I did not have to join a gym as frog jumps can be easily practiced at home. However, the exercise did not do any long-term harm. Mistakenly, I landed in the heels first due to which my knees and heels were harmed. The repetitive jumping has caused stress on my joints. If I stress my joint too much, it starts paining.
After visiting exercise classes at clubs and sports team, I identified an exercise at the swimming club that was bio-mechanically wrong. The swimmers were asked to stretch their arms for increasing range of motion of the arms, chest and shoulders. The move was performed in a ballistic manner, with the individual pulsing stretch upwards. The stretch could lead to shoulder instability and predisposition to long term injury. Not only this, but the exercise puts a lot of strain and stress on the lower back. Alternatively, the swimmers can perform standing doorway chest stretch. It shall help in increasing blood flow and help joints stay strong and healthy.
According to research, women are more likely to have knee problems than men. The anatomy and hormones make them more prone to knee injuries (WebMD, 2016).
There are biomechanical differences between men and women that make it more risky for women to have sports injuries. Q angle refers to quadriceps femoris muscle angle. A high Q angle for women causes the quadriceps to disposition patella leading to poor tracking. The same issue may lead to knee pain and muscular imbalance. Women also have higher rates of ACL injuries than men as the increased Q angle causes greater stress and less stable knees (WebMD, 2016).
The Patellar tracking disorder is a problem as the kneecap shifts out of place. A few exercises can help in improving flexibility such as quad sets and Straight-leg raises to the front. Both the exercises help in tightening muscles (Knopf, 2016).
The conditions leading to COPD are long term exposure to lung irritants, inherited factors and preterm birth defects. The clients would be taking bronchodilators, anticholinergics, methylxanthines and steroids. A client with mid-moderate COPD can carry out activities at 4-5 Mets including bicycling, light effort stationary. Exercising at 3-4 METs is like above, low intensity aerobic exercise, and 4-6 METS is high impact aerobic exercise and greater includes jumping robe and running (Knopf, 2016).
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